Print ISSN: 1993-9345

Online ISSN: 2664-2514

Volume 20, Issue 66

Volume 20, Issue 66, Summer and Autumn 2014, Page 1-193


Effectiveness of Skilful Exercises on the Performance Level of Twisting Movements on the Carpet of Floor Exercises for Youth Gymnastic Players

Abdul-Jabbar Abdul-Razzaq; Saib Mahdi Ibrahim

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 1-21
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89587

The research aims at revealing the following :
- The effectiveness of skilful exercises on the performance level of twisting movements on the carpet of floor exercises for young gymnastic players for the experimental and control samples .
To verify the research objectives , the researchers have set the following hypotheses :
1. There were significant differences in the pre and post tests in the skilful performance level of twisting movements on floor movement carpet in gymnastic for the experimental group and for the benefit of the post test.
The research methodology and field measures :
The research has been performed on a sample of the youth team of Nineveh governorate in gymnastic ( age 14-18 years ).The research sample includes (10) players divided into (5) players in a group selected intentionally via a lottery by drawing numbers (1 to 10) and placed in a case in a way that each player draws a certain number . The researchers named the owners of the odd numbers under the control group and the owners of the even numbers under the experimental group. The research items were applied completely in terms of the tests , evaluating performance level of twisting
Effectiveness of Skewing Movements Exercises
movements , pre and post "tests" for both experimental and control groups under the same circumstances in terms of the availability of modern training hall and modern gymnastic devices for both research groups . The researchers adopted the experimental methodology for its convenience to the nature of the research.
The research measures included distributing a questionnaire form to the specialists and experts to determine some skilful exercises and performance level of researched movements .
To verify the achievement of equivalence and homogenous between both groups in variables of ( age , height and mass ) and the skilful exercises and technical performance level of twisting movements on the carpet of floor exercises determined for the research by the experts and specialists .A training program has been designed and applied on the experimental group as well as making a number of survey experiments to transcend the problems and difficulties in performing exercises in addition to the suitable repetitions and suitable times of rest for these exercises that suit the research sample .Then , pre-tests for some skilful exercises and the level of skilful performance have been performed . Next, the experimental group has performed the program prepared by the researcher . The training program was lasted (8) weeks during intermediate courses as (4) short courses for the first course , and (4) short courses for the second course . The researcher has performed post-tests in a number of skilful exercises and the performance level of twisting movements and the same steps followed in the pre-tests .
The researcher has obtained the following results :
After finishing the research measures , the researcher has obtained the following results :
- The training program of the experimental group affected positively on developing the skilful performance level by the device of floor exercises .
- The training program for the experimental group achieved a development greater than the training program for the control group in developing the skilful performance level by the device of floor exercises in addition to the twisting movements from (180-1080) .
Recommendations :
- Using the training program of twisting exercises in developing skilful performance level .
- Gymnastic trainers interested in training special basic skills as right basic point for all movements on the carpet of floor exercises .
- The gymnastic trainers need to make verity of exercises and the possibility of investing the properties of these exercises to develop skilful performance for gymnastic players .
- Paying attention to train acrobatic twisting movements for their big and effective value in raising degrees of difficulty to maximum .

Evaluating of the Communication Components of the Sport-Educational Supervisors from the Point of View of Sport-Education Teachers (male & female) in Mosul City

Ryad Ahmed Alashrifi; Firas Al-Haggori

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 22-50
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89588

The research aims at Constructing a scale to measure the communication components for the sport-educational supervisors from the point of view of sport-education teachers (male & female ) in Mosul city . and Recognizing the level of communication components and components for the sport-educational supervisors.
The researchers have used the descriptive methodology with the survey style . The study includes a sample of sport-education teachers ( male & female) as (250, 107) divided into a construction sample and application sample respectively .To achieve the research objectives and obtaining data , the questionnaire has been used after the researchers has constructed a scale of communication components for the sport-education supervisors from the point of view of the sport-education teachers (male & female) .After providing the scientific conditions , they have been applied on the research sample .The data have been treated statistically via the arithmetic mean , standard deviation, percentage, simple correlation, and t-test for two independent samples .
The following results have been obtained : constructing a scale of communication components for the sport-education supervisors from the point of view of the sport-education teachers (male & female),the sport-education supervisors enjoy a good level of communication components compatible to the level of their dimensions (listening , question and discussion, and evaluation ) while the effective discourse, and response appeared in a very good level, and there were some negatives in the dimension components of communication components for the sport educational supervisors as follows :the supervisors use a single accent and voice speed in their supervision discourse ,the supervisors adopt the formal context in their response to the educational attitudes, the supervisors avoid to presenting a clear perception clarifying their understand to the discourse of the sport education teacher, and the supervisors depend on their memory in recalling the educational attitudes. The researchers have recommended a number of recommendations like : Enhancing the scale prepared by the researcher in measuring the communication components for the leaders of the sport organizations after adapting it to the requirements of their work, enhancing the communication components for the sport-education supervisors via their participation in the training courses, conferences, and the specialized internal and external scientific symposiums ,and preparing a guide for the sport-education supervisors via holding workshops dealing with illustrating communication components and their effects on supervising tasks.

Effect Of using Differentiated Instruction Strategy On Acquiring And Preserving Some Offensive Skills In Handball

Laith Mohammad Dawoud Al-Banna; Mohammad Abed Ali

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 51-69
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89589

The research aims at revealing the following :
Effect of using a differentiated Instruction strategy on learning some offensive skills in handball for the fourth-year students / institute of preparing teachers in Nineveh .
To verify the objectives of the research , the researchers have hypothesized the following :
The researchers have hypothesized there were no significance statistical differences in :
The results among the post-tests in learning some offensive skills in handball for the three research groups.
The research community was selected randomly from the students of teachers preparation institute in Nineveh (Mosul centre) . On the other hand, the research sample was selected randomly from the fourth-year students / institute of teachers preparation (semester 2012-2013) as (53) students .
The researcher have selected three groups . The methods have been distributed to the groups on a lottery method .So, the research groups were as follows :
Group B :the first experimental group ( applying the flexible group strategy and learning centers ).
Group A :the second experimental group ( applying the strategy of learning centers ).
Group C :the control group ( applying the method adopted in the institute ).
The equivalence was done among the groups in the variables of (age, height and mass) as well as in some elements of physical fitness affecting learning some offensive skills in handball. Accordingly, the researchers have used the experimental design called the design of the equivalent random groups with the pre-tests and post-tests vigorous control.
Both research instruments have been prepared representing by the tests used to measure the researched handball skills. So, the training program related to handball skills (Pass the ball from above shoulder level , pass the ball from above the head, pass to the side, shooting from forward jump, and shooting from the level of shoulder to the side ) have been prepared according to the strategy of learning centers and the flexible groups . The program lasted (3) weeks as two learning units per a week . This program has been performed during the period from 3/3/2013 till 26/3/2013.
After applying the experiment , preparing the research instruments , collecting data , inputting data and processing them statistically by using ( arithmetic mean, standard deviation, difference test, anova one way, dimensional difference analysis , simple and multi correlation coefficient and L.S.D ).
The following results have been obtained :

1. The differentiated Instruction strategy ( learning centers and flexible groups) achieves better acquisition of some offensive skills in handball compared with the normal method.
2. The strategy of learning centers and flexible groups is better than the strategy of (learning centers alone) in acquiring some offensive skills in handball.
Recommendations :
In the light of the research results , the researchers have recommended the following :
1. Using the strategy of learning centers and the flexible groups in the differentiated Instruction in teaching handball skill and the other skills.
2. Using the strategy of learning centers in the case of inability to combine the strategy of learning centers and the flexible groups in the differentiated Instruction
3. training the teachers (of primary and secondary schools) and the education supervisors during their service on the differentiated learning to make them know the characteristics and benefits of this modern Instruction strategy.
Suggestions :
The researchers have formed a group of suggestions for the future studies as follows :
1. Making similar study on the rest of the text practical materials of the secondary schools,and the institutes and colleges.
2. Making researches to compare the other strategies with the strategy of the differentiated Instruction.

Comparative Study of some Pulmonary Ventilation Variables during Recovery of An Anaerobic Effort in Two Different Environment (Aquatic and Landward)

Ahmed Aldabagh; Mohammad Mohammad Ahmed

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 70-82
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89590

The present study aimed at recognizing the significance of differences in variables : tidal volume (TV) , the number of respiration bouts (RR) , pulmonary ventilation (VE) , during different stages of recovery from anaerobic aquatic effort (50m free swimming ) as well as anaerobic landward effort (200m run). The study also aimed at making a comparison among the studied physiological variables between (50m) free style swimming and (200m) run according to the training principle (1:4) swimming to running.
The research sample includes (10) students / college of sport education who used to practice swimming and are consistent in (50mr) free style swimming . The descriptive methodology has been adopted for its convenience to the nature of the research.
The tests include running (200m) , free style swimming (50m) during two days .
The physiological variables have been measured at the minutes ( 5,10) of the negative recovery .
The data have been processed statistically by using the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, t-test for two independent samples, t-test for two correlated samples , ANOVA test within subjects.
The researchers have concluded the following :
Restoring recovery after anaerobic aquatic effort (50mr free style swimming) may be fast in the physiological variables (VE , RR, TV) at the minutes (5and10) .However , in spite of being fast , these variables do not reach their state of rest tidal volume .
Restoring recovery after a landward anaerobic effort (200mr run according the principle 1:4) may be fast in the physiological variables (VE , RR, TV) at the minutes ( 5and10) .However , in spite of being fast , these variables do not reach their normel state as it is in rest situation .
(50m) free style swimming and (200m) running may cause the same changes in each of ( VE, TV , and RR) at recovery stages ( 5and10) minutes .
The researchers have recommended the need to consider the differences in the physiological variables assumed by the specialty of the practiced activity whether swimming or running during constructing training units .
It is necessary to make next studies dealing with the same differences between the swimming effort and landward effort on a sample with other levels may be males or females and beginners or youth .
It is necessary to make next studies dealing with the present subject for other distances and activities .

Constructing a Shyness Scale for the students of the Physical Education at Mosul University

Rafie Idriss Abdel Ghafoor; Hanin Abdul Karim Qasim

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 83-120
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89591

The research aims at Building a Shyness Scale for the students of the Physical Education at Mosul University, Descriptive method with survey style for suitability to the nature of the research , the research sample of students of Physical Education at the University of Mosul's, consisted of (241) female and male , representing (83%) of the original populationof the study , the Shyness Scale which was constructed by researchers was used after depending on scientific procedures and steps in constructing psychological scales as a tool of the research .
The researchers used the SPSS package to determine the (arithmetic mean , standard deviation , percentage, t- Test, and correlation coefficient)
The researchers concluded the following:
* Constructing a Shyness Scale for the students of the Physical Education at Mosul University.
* Accepting all axes that form the subject matter which are (4) axes.
The researchers recommended the following:
*Adoption of shyness Scale for the students of Physical Education at the University of Mosul to measure the shyness of their student and then take advantage of these results to help students solve their problems through guidance and counseling
*the possibility to benefit from the scale of Shyness in order to make comparisons between the different grades.

Effect of a Suggested Psychological Program on Reducing Psychological Stress to Improve Skilful Performance Level on Balance Bar Device for Female Students / College of Sport Education / Mosul University

Moa’yad Abdul-Razzaq; Ashraf Luai Salim Tohala

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 121-157
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89592

The study aimed at :
- Constructing a suggested psychological program on reducing psychological Stress to improve skilful performance level on a balance bar device for female students / college of sport education.
- Finding the degree of psychological stress and skilful performance level on a balance bar device for female students / college of sport education for experimental and control groups .
- Finding the effect of a suggested psychological program on reducing psychological Stress to improve skilful performance level on a balance bar device for female students / college of sport education.
- Finding the differences in psychological stress and the skilful performance level on a balance bar device for female students / college of sport education for experimental and control groups in post test .
The researchers have adopted the experimental methodology for its convenience to the nature of the present research . The research was performed on a sample selected randomly and represented by female students / college of sport education / Mosul university as (20) female students . The female students were divided randomly into two groups ( experimental and control ) as (9) female students for each group after excluding (2) female students and (9) female students for the field experiment .
The researchers have used the experimental design called ( the equivalent groups ) randomly selected with both pre and post tests .
Then ,the researchers prepared a psychological program( psychological skill training ) which included training on three psychological skills : relaxation , mental speculation and attention concentration. The suggested psychological training program is applied on the experimental group before starting the common teaching as for the skill of relaxation and mental speculation and as (3) units for relaxation and (4) units for the mental speculation . Thus , the training units were (7) . On the other hand , the skill of attention concentration for which the training units were performed as (3) units . So , the program lasted (4) weeks as (3) training units per week . The time of training unit was (25-30) minutes for the period 30/4/2013 until 26/5/2013 . The main research experiment is applied at the indoor of physical fitness / college of sport education / Mosul university .

Impact of some aspects of muscle strength exercises in number of physical variables and the level of achievement for 50-meter freestyle swim for men

Enad Jarjees; Omer Hamdoon

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 158-193
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89593

The training and good planning in swimming have a good deal of attention in the attempt of scientists and specialists to take advantage of other sciences in the development process, which requires advance planning and creating all the conditions to achieve the feat, and this requires a state of full readiness and effective and appropriate training plans the strength training considered one of the important physical attributes in the training of swimming and is one of the core exercises to strengthen the muscle groups to which take part in the performance.
The aspects of muscle strength training one of the most important methods by which the coach can develop muscle strength among swimmers through their performance skills into the water and determine the most important physical exercises that have impact on all stages of the swimmer.
Research aims to detect:
1.3.1 The impact of some of the exercises muscle strength in a number of physical variables for swimmers of 50-meter freestyle for men.
1.3.2 the impact of some of the muscle strength exercises in the level of achievement for the 50-meter freestyle swimming for men.
The researchers used the experimental method for suitability to the nature of the research, which was conducted on swimmers Faculty of Physical Education and selected sample of research and of the 14 swimmers were divided randomly draw way by (7) players for each group. Homogeneity was conducted on a sample of the research in variables (height, age, weight) as well as aparity between the two groups in physical variables. It appear by extracting value (t) the calculated lack of moral significant differences between the two groups in all the physical variables.
The researchers used the experimental design, which is called the "evaluate the control group random choice with pretest and posttest.
The procedures of the researcher included designing training program which was reviewed by experts and specialists, and then was the implementation of the training program, as experimental group carried out the proposed training program prepared by the researcher and private aspects of exercises muscle strength either the control group has carried out the traditional exercises that are given by the coach.
It took fulfillment training program (8) weeks, two average and three training units per week and waves of movement of pregnancy (3: 1) At each session, medium and after the completion of the implementation of the training program conducted tests posteriori by following the same procedures that have been adopted in the tests tribal tests of physical variables physical as well as imaging .The researcher reached the following conclusions:
1. the exercises of some aspects of muscle strength caused development in all the variables elevated some of them to the point of moral.
2. some of the exercises muscle strength which was carried out by the experimental group made a significant development in the achievement of the swimmers.
The researcher recommended the following:
1. The possibility of using the aspects of muscle strength exercises to be effective in the development of the strengths of swimmers.
2. The possibility of using exercises power specialized with speed or exercises force to develop the maximum speed and speed end urance of the swimmers .

Rate of Some Functional Variables Contribution to the Performance Level of the Football Referees

Dhurgham Mohammad; Samer Gorgees

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 194-220
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.163121

The research aimed at revealing the following :

The degree of the functional variables ( heart rate , systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure , and functional tension ) for the football referees before match management .
The rate of some functional variables’ contribution ( heart rate , systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure )to the real performance level of the referees .

The researcher hypothesized the following to achieve the research objectives :

There is a considerable pressure in some functional variables ( heart rate , systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure) before the match compared to the natural state .
The functional variables contribute ( heart rate , systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure ) contribute somewhat in recognizing the real performance level of the referees .

The researchers have used the descriptive methodology with a survey style for it is the typical method to solve the problem . The research sample included (43) first-degree referees authorized by the Iraqi union of football (term 2012-2013) who were selected randomly . The researchers have used both devices ( biomouse and sphygmomanometer ) to measure some functional variables ( heart rate , systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure , and the functional tension ).
After confirming,  the validity , reliability ,and subjectivity of the research tools , the obtained data were statistically treated by using (the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, percentage , simple regression and multiple regression by both methods of (enter ) and (stepwise ) .
After performing the necessary statistical treatments , the researchers obtained several results like :

A considerable increase in some functional variables ( pulse and blood pressure ) for the football referees before match management.
There is a moral correlation relationship between some functional variables and the real performance level for the football referees .
The functional tension contributes at a great proportion in evaluating the real performance level of the referees .

The researchers have recommended the necessity of :

Interesting in continuously measuring the functional variables for the referees  before match management.
The need to adopting the functional variables in diagnosing the psychological stresses for the referees before match management .
Using biomouse device in diagnosing tension for the referees before , during , and after the match management.
Adopting the researched functional tension as a real indicator of tension suffered by the referees during match managing .

The possibility to predicate the performance level during the functional tension suffered by the referees before match management 

Evaluating Coaches’ Leadership for the Skilful and Tactical Exercises from the Point of View of the Players of Excellent Tournament Iraqi Clubs of Basketball

Reyadh Ahmed Al-Eshrifi; Safa Al-Hamdani

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 221-255
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.163125

The research aimed at : 

Constructing scale to evaluate coaches’ leadership to the skilful and tactical exercises  from the point of view of the players of excellent tournament Iraqi clubs of basketball.
Identifying the dimension level of coaches’ leadership to the skillful and tactical exercises and its factors from the point of view of the players of excellent tournament Iraqi clubs of basketball.
Identifying the difference morality between the leadership of skilful and tactical exercises and its dimensions for the coaches of excellent tournament Iraqi clubs of basketball.

The researchers used the descriptive methodology with survey . So, the research sample included (138) players from the excellent tournament Iraqi clubs of basketball.
To achieve the research objectives , a questionnaire has been used as a means of collecting data . So, the researchers have constructed two scales of coaches’ leadership to the skilful and tactical exercises from the point of view of (80) players from the research community . After providing the scientific conditions , they have been applied on (38) players as a final research sample . The data have been processed statistically via the arithmetic mean, standard deviation , percentage , simple correlation and t-Test.
The researchers have concluded the following                                          1 . The validity or the two scales to measure the coachers’ leadership to the skilful and planning exercises in the point of view of the players of the excellent Iraqi tournament clubs in basketball.
2 . The coaches have agood level in leading skilful excercises suitable to  the level of most of its dimensions represented by ( explanation and  presentntion ,changing and creativity, non_verbal communication , time regulation ,team organization , art of directing orders and decisions , motivation , special regulation , supervision and feedback ) .
3. The coaches have avery good level in leading tactical exercises suitable to the level of its dimensions represented by ( explanation and  presentntion , control and regulation , , non_verpal communication , team organization , changing and creativity ) . they have shown agood level in the dimensions ( space regulation , art of directing orders and decision , time regulation , supervision, motivation and feedback ).
4 . significant wear differences to the benefit of coaches’ leadership to the tactical excercises compared to their leadership to the skilful excerces . this differemce lies in the dimensions (  space regulation, explanation and  presentntion , supervision and feedback ) .
The researchers have several recommedations including
1 . The coaches of excellent Iraqi clubs of basketball require to pay more attention in leading skilful exercises to make their players access the stage of mastering and integrity for they form the essence and base of tactical maneuvers in addition to perform the tactical movement

A Comparative study of some Kinematics Variables of the straight Right Punch Directed to the Head & Abdomen in Boxing

Falah Hamo; Ahmed Amjad Abdul-Aal

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 256-278
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.163126

The research aimed at:
1-                  Recognizing the values of some of the Kinematics variables of the straight right punch directed to the head.
2-                  Recognizing the values of some of the Kinematics variables of the straight right punch directed to the Abdomen.
3-                  Finding the differences among the values of some Kinematics variables of the straight right punch directed to the head and Abdomen.
   The study supposed that there were significant differences among the values of some of the Kinematics variables of the straight right punch directed to the head and Abdomen
   The descriptive method was used, the sample included (5) young players of Nineveh team in Boxing. The measurements, analysis and technical scientific observation were used as mean to collect data to obtain some of straight the Kinematics variables values. To achieve the technical scientific observation accurately the videography was used.
   The study included a number of Kinematics variables of the direct right punch directed to the head and Abdomen. The data have been processed statistically by using the mean, standard deviation and (T) period test.
   The study concluded the following:
There were significant difference between some “Kinematics variables for the straight right punch” directed to the head and abdomen.
The study had recommendations to be utilized in the coaching to achieve the best performance for players

The impact of using both styles of exercise scheduling (practice) Constant-distributed, distributed Variable in learning and Retention some of basic offensive skills in mini basketball

Nawfal Rashid; Omar AL. Qader

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 279-311
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.163127

The aims of the study was :-
-                      To explore the impact of using both styles of  exercise scheduling (practice) Constant-distributed, distributed Variable in learning some basic offensive skills in mini basketball.
-                      Comparing the impact of using both styles of  exercise-scheduling (practice) Constant-distributed, distributed Variable in learning some basic offensive skills in mini basketball in the post test.
-                      Comparison between the impact of using both styles of  practice scheduling Constant-distributed distributed Variable in retention some basic offensive skills in mini basketball.
-                      Experimental method was used to for its suitability to the  nature of the study , sample of the study consisted of (30) players , , which divided into two equal, each group consisted of (15) players for each group , equivalent was done for the sample in variables of groups  ( mass , length , age , some of motor and physical elements , some of the basicattacking skills in mini basketball . Programs period were (7) weeks , two learning units in a week for each group , time for each unit was (45) minutes . Data was treated statistically by using the { Arithmetic mean , standard deviation ,simple correlate (pearson), (T) test for the paired equal number  and unpaired equal number  samples } .
-                      The researchers concluded the following :-
-                      It was positive, effective influence for the style used in the study (constant-distributed, distributed Variable in learning basic skills in mini basketball in different degrees.
-                      Superiority for the second experimental group which used the exercise scheduling (practice) distributed Variable on the first experimental group which used the exercise-scheduling (practice) constant- in all basic skills in the mini basketball under study.
-                      The second experimental group have more retention of  the basic skills in the mini basketball than the first experimental group

The relationship between strength- distinguish by speed (for legs and arms) and some of the mechanical variables with the accuracy of shooting by jump in team handball

Mohammed Khalil Mohammed; Omar Abdel Aziz Khalaf

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 312-345
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.163128

Abstract
The idea of the ​​research is summarized   in studying some of mechanical variables for the research sample and their relationship with the accuracy of shooting by jump in team handball.
The research aimed to identify:
1-Values of strength- distinguish by speed  ​​for  hand ball players.

2- Values ​​ofmechanical variablesduringthe shooting by jump in team handball.
3-Values ​​oftheaccuracy of shooting by jump in team handball.
4- The relationship betweenstrength- distinguish by speed and the accuracy of shooting by jump in team handball.
5- The relationship betweensome of the mechanical variables and the accuracy of the shooting by jump in team hand ball.
6- The relationship betweenstrength- distinguish by speed andsome of mechanicalvariables of shooting by jump in team hand ball.
The researchers used the descriptive method for its convenience to the research nature, the research community was consisted of the(18) youth handball players in Nineveh, while the research sample has been selected intentionally  from players who use the right arm in shooting whom they were 8 players, the researchers used test , measurement and scientific observation as a tools of data collection , the scientific observation was carried out by using  (Casio exlim)  digital camera  with speed of  ( 120 f/ sec)and placed  ( 9.02 m) on  the right side of the player with a lens  height of  ( 1.25 m)  to obtain  the values  of some variables for the players and the ball , a yard stick one meter was used and filmed in both positions (horizontal and vertical)  to calculate the real dimensions of picture .
Data were statistically handled treated by applying (SPSS) program to obtain (the arithmetic mean standard deviation, the simple correlation and t test for independent samples)

Tactical thinking for the special playing situations for basketball players constructing and application

Essam Mohammed A. Ridha; Zaidoon Rashed Hamdoon

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 346-372
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.163129

 
The Research aims at : constructing scale of tactical thinking special playing situations for basketball players . And to identify the level of tactical thinking for special cases of the basketball players .The researcher used the descriptive approach for it's suitability to the nature of the research the current research community included players from the clubs, the Premier League and first division basketball in Iraq category applicants for season 2012 - 2013 and numbered (186) player The sample of this research were divided into two groups (construction and application of) The steps and scientific have been followed inorder to get to tool of the research procedures in the scientific and research to reach a measurement tool (tactical thinking for the special play situations of basketball) and then the focal point for the psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the research tool were verified.The researcher used statistical bag of Social Sciences, SPSS for (arithmetic mean , standard deviation, percentage, t-test , simple correlation coefficient ( Pearson ) .The researcher get to construct a scale tactical for thinking for the special play situations of  basketball for the Premier League clubs and first-class basketball players applicants . the research sample have little be to higher level of thinking than mean score. The researcher recommended the following . The possibility of using a scale of tactical thinking of the special playing situations which was designed by the researchers by basketball coaches inorder to know their players tactical levels in those cases.
- Emphasis on the interest in raising the level of tactical thinking for the special playing situations to better than before by training staff and through the development of thinking and tactical knowledge of basketball players during training modules and in line with the evolution of the game

Constructing a scale for the psychological coping skills for the track and field players in Iraq

Moayed Abdul-Razzaq hasso; Mohammed Esam Al_Kledar

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 373-399
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.163130

 The current research has aimed :
Constructing a scale for the psychological coping skills for the track and field players in Iraq
The descriptive approach with correlation style has been used, the community  of the research has consisted of advanced athletes and youths from the clubs of field sports in Iraq, they were  (373) distributed  on (31) clubs including such as (Khan Bani Saad, Al_Qassim, Afak, Al_Khornaq, Al_Rafedain, Al_Mustaqbal, Al_Meshekhab, Al_Shurta, Al_Basrah, Al_Qurna, Al_Samawa, Al_Mahawel, Al_Gadeer, Al_Kahrabaa, Solaf, Al_Peshmerga, Al_Jesh, Al_Thawra, Al_Wajehya, Al_Sulaimaniya, Erbil, Babel Alkefel, Naft Baghdad, Duhok, Zakho, Peres, Naft Alwaset, Sewran, Alnaft, Naft Aljanob, Al_Qannat Albasra).
The construction sample of the research has included (207) athletes representing the clubs of track and field sports in Iraq, for advanced and youths .whom they  were intentional chosen 
Then the researchers  have concluded the following:
The scale psychologicalcoping skillsforplayers,track and field players in Iraq, washighly effective, for being constructedwithaccurate scientificspecifications..
In the light of these conclusions, the researchers have recommended the following:
Emphasis on using the scale of psychological coping skills for the track and field players in Iraq.