Print ISSN: 1993-9345

Online ISSN: 2664-2514

Volume 20, Issue 65

Volume 20, Issue 65, Summer and Autumn 2014, Page 1-378


The Impact of the style American association for swimming training by using Some Specialized drills on aerobic, anaerobic ability, performance and Achievement in ( 50) Meters – Freestyle Swimming

Ziad Y. Al-Saffar; Al-Waleed . Al-Basso

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2014, Volume 20, Issue 65, Pages 1-24
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89570

The aims of the research :
- Finding out significance of the difference of aerobic and anaerobic ability, Performance and Achievement in 50 Meters between pre and post tests for both experimental(that applied of Specialized drills) and control groups.
- Finding out significance of the difference of aerobic and anaerobic ability, Performance and Achievement in (50) Meters in post test for both experimental(that applied of Specialized drills) and control groups.

The hypotheses of the research:
-There are significant differences between pre and post tests in aerobic and anaerobic ability, Performance and Achievement in 50 Meters for both experimental and control groups.
- There are significant differences in aerobic and anaerobic ability, Performance and Achieving in(50) Meters between the experimental and control group in post test .
- The researchers used the experimental method which suits the nature of the study. The experimental was applied on a sample of a number of the members of the Iraqi National team of the Olympic swimming, (50) meters-freestyle swimming juniors aged 11-12 years, 16 swimmer. Then the sample is divided into both experimental and standard group of (8) swimmers for each group selectively. It also achieved a kind of homogeneity of those member in the variables of (length, weight, age, training age, and Achievement (50) meters freestyle swimming) whereas the equivalence was done between both groups in the following variables (aerobic ability, anaerobic ability, performance, and Achievement).
The study used experimental design of the equivalent group with pre and post test. The procedures include designing a training course of specialized practices, then applying it in both endurance and speed items as part of the general course of the National team of swimming. The study also used the questionnaire experiments to explain some important facts. The following statistical methods was used also (the average, standard deviation, percentage, Person coefficient, T-Test of the independent samples, T-test for the dependent sample).
The results of the research:
- The program of American swimming coaches association style by using some Specialized drills that using by experimental group led to develop aerobic ability, anaerobic ability, performance, and achievement whereas the control group led to develop aerobic ability, anaerobic ability, performance only.
- The experimental group has developed better than control group in aerobic ability, anaerobic ability, performance, and achieving .
- There’s a positive impact to use the Specialized drills in the special training units of the physical side in the sense that they help the swimmer to swim with an ideal technique under the influence of being tired of the metabolic reactions.
- The skillful performance is connected to the achieving in swimming and it also completes with the physical preparation in the level of achieving.
- The modern styles of training in swimming submitted by the American society have homogeneity with the nature of performing which the Specialized drills need.

Relationship Between Maximum Strength , with some Mechanical Variables for the Trajectory of the Bar and achievement during the Snatch lift

layth obayde; Saoud Al_Horamany

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2014, Volume 20, Issue 65, Pages 25-55
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89571

The study has aimed into:
1. Identifying the values of Maximum strength of legs ,arms ,back and achievement in Snatch lift for the team of Nineveh Region In weightlifting.
Identifying the values of some mechanical variables for the trajectory of the Bar (heights, deviations ,time, distance, displacement, Speed velocity, Maximum velocity,
2. Identifying the values of Maximum strength of legs ,arms ,back and achievement in Snatch lift for the team of Nineveh Region In weightlifting.
3. Identifying the values of some mechanical variables for the trajectory of the Bar (heights, deviations ,time, distance, displacement, Speed velocity, Maximum velocity, acceleration, force, Work, Power, Momentum) of all phased in snatch lift for the team of Nineveh Region In weightlifting.
4. Identifying the relationship between the maximum strength of legs arms ,back with mechanical variables of the trajectory of the Bar(heights, deviations, Work, Power, Momentum) and performance in Snatch lift for the team of Nineveh Region In weightlifting.
The research has hypothesized the following:
1. there were significant correlation between maximum strength for arms, back, and legs, and the mechanical variables for the trajectory of the bar during snatch lift for the weightlifters of Nineveh Region.
2. there were significant correlation between (the maximum strength for arms, legs, and back) and achievement (absolute & relative) in the snatch lift for the weightlifter of Nineveh Region.
Methods :The researchers have adopted the descriptive methodology. The sample was (6) weightlifters from the advanced category. They have been chosen deliberately because they were getting the advanced stages in the championships of the country.
The researchers have used the scientific technical observation ,questionnaire , analysis , and measurement for collecting data .
. The following programs have been used in the analysis : ( I film Edit 1,3 , Image ready 8 , ACD See 10,Adobe photo shop 8 , and Excel ).
The researchers have processed the data statistically by using SPSS (the arithmetical mean, the standard deviation ,percentile, and simple correlation coefficient.
The researchers have concluded the following :
1. The increase of Maximum strength for arms help to reduce deviation (D3,D4 ,D5).
2. The increase of Maximum Strength for legs help to increase Work sign (displacement and distance) through phases Snatch W1, W4.
3. The Power increase in phase after full extension to increase Maximum Strength for legs.
4. The Momentum increase in phases for Snatch (M2,M3,M4,M5) to increase Maximum Strength for legs.
5. The Momentum increase in snatch lift phases by the increase of Maximum Strength for legs , back, and arms.
6. The absence of any significant correlation between Max. Strength for legs ,arms, and back with remaining other Variables.
The researchers have recommended some recommendations.
1. emphasizing on the increasing the muscular strength and developing it for the weightlifters equally, for arms, legs, and back. Because its effect on the mechanical values and trajectory of the bar.
2. developing the strength of the muscular for the arms through the exercising, as well as its role in the success of the snatch by decreasing the deviation of the weight during the snatch lift.

Construction of Endurance Of Compound Skill Performance Test For Youth Handball Players Of The Northern Region

ad Basim Jameel; Zena Abdul kareem Qasim

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2014, Volume 20, Issue 65, Pages 56-72
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89572

The research aims at:-
-Constructing of endurance of compound skill performance test for youth handball players of northern region.
The scopes of the research included the following:
- Human scope: youth handball players of northern region.
- spatial scope: from 2/1/2013-16/4/2013 .
- place scope: Indoors of handball clubs of the northern region.
The researchers used descriptive method with survey style for it's convenience to the nature of this research .
Youth handball players of the clubs of the northern region were representing the society of this research whom they were (75) players, while the construction sample was consisted of (60) players which represent (80%) from the whole society of the research ,The researchers used questionnaire, test and content analysis as a tool of collecting data.
The following statistical tools were used by the researchers: mean ,standard deviation ,simple correlation coefficient(person) standard score ,t-Test for independent samples ,coefficient of skewenss and six seqma (score) .
The researchers concluded that they got to constructed test for endurance of compound skill performance for youth handball players of
northern region.
The researchers recommended to depend on the constructed test by coaches when assessing the level of their players performance on compound skill test.

An analytical study in some bio-kinematical variables for take-off phases and their relationship with the achievement in the triple jump activity

Ammar Ali Ehsan; Zaid abd-Alsattar hamed

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2014, Volume 20, Issue 65, Pages 73-93
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89573

The triple jump is consider one of the track and field competitions that is distinguished by difficult technique which include the approach run , hop, step, jump and the landing phases , and considering of what these phases need of high physical and skill training , and to recognize to the features of these phases and standing-up of the variables that should attention with to improving and developing these phases, the study problem was specified in study the bio-kinematical variables that effect in triple jump phases performance specially the last three steps variables that effect largely on the take-off and with relation to the approach run velocity and fulcrum angle (the frontal body fulcrum angle) and other body angles, also the take-off phase with it’s two parts (collision absorption- absorption push) in addition to fulcrum and take-off angles for the phase itself.
The research aims to identify:
1 – Values of achievement of the research sample
2 – values of some bio-kinematical variables for the last three steps and take-off phases in the triple jump for a sample research.
3 - The relationship between some bio-kinematical variables for the last three steps and take-off phases in the triple jump and achievement.
The researchers had hypothesized that there is a significant correlation between some bio-kinematical variables for the last three steps and take-off phases in the triple jump with achievement.
The researchers used the descriptive method with the analysis and correlations style for its convenience to the research nature.
The research sample consisted of (6) jumpers representing advanced players participating in the Iraqi tournament of triple jump .
The researchers had used measurement, test and technical scientific observation as a tools for data collection, technical Scientific observation was carried out by using four video cameras , three of them were placed on left side of player to obtain the values of bio-kinematical variables of (hope , step, jump)phases and the fourth was placed in the face of the player to extract the deviations paths that player passes by side, A yard stick of one meter was used and filmed in both positions (horizontal and vertical) to calculate alteration coefficient from the image to reality in order to obtain
bio-kinematical variables. each player has performed (6) attempts and the best attempt at achievement analyzed using computer softwares for kinetic analysis.
Data were statistically handled treated through applying (spss) program to obtain (the arithmetic mean, standard deviation , the simple correlation)as well as equations correlated with biomechanics variables.

Effects of a suggested Special supportive exercise on a number

Moafak S. Ahmed; Mohammed A. Hammed

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2014, Volume 20, Issue 65, Pages 94-116
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89574

This research aims at being acquainted with the
 Effects of specific assistant exercises on certain physical variables of the two research groups, the experimental and control.
 Statistical significant differences of certain physical variables of the two research groups, the experimental and control at the post test.

The research hypothesized he following
 There were Statistical significant differences of certain physical variables between the pre and post tests of the two research groups, the experimental and control.
 There were Statistical significant differences of certain physical variables of the two research groups, the experimental and control at the post test.

The experimental method was used as a part of procedures since it is convenient to the nature of the study. Having excluded the sample of the pilot study, the sample included 20 junior players under age of 18 year chosen at random from the 26 total society of the Ninaveh handball team at 2007-2008 training season.

The sample divided at random into two groups, experimental and control by using the lot with 10 players each. The equality between the groups was done in the variables of age, height and weight in addition to the variables chosen by experts. The experimental design of the equal groups with pre-post tests was taken up. The arithmetic mean, standard deviation, Person coefficient correlation, paired t Test and independent t Test were used to process data statistically.

The most important conclusions were the following:

 The suggested specific strength excercise improved significantly all physical variables at question.
 The experimental group excelled significantly the control group in all physical variables (excluding the leg power).
 The control group had a remarkable excellence in all physical variables (excluding the locomotive speed and the Arm explosive power).
The most important recommendations were the following:
 The attention of handball coaches should be paid to the control style of workload components at pre competition and utilization of this components effectively to improve the physical aspects .
 Conducting more similar studies for other ball games especially basketball, volleyball and soccer by using assistant strength exercises of the physical variables.

Effect of Specific Endurance Exercises By Divided The Body In to upper and lower Style on a number of Physical variables and achieving in (50) meter Breast stroke swimming of juniors

Muafaq aldabbagh; Ali Al_Mashhadani

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2014, Volume 20, Issue 65, Pages 117-144
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89575

The study aims to discuss what follows
-The differences in some of the physical variables and achieving in (50) meter breast stroke swimming of juniors between both before and after tests for the benefit of post test -The differences in some of the physical variables and a achieving in (50) meter breast stroke swimming of juniors between both research groups experimental group and control group in for the benefit experimental group. .
The two researchers uses the experimental course since it suits the study taking a sample of players of ninavah clubs of swimming ( ummal ، ninavah، mosul ، algosh، iyad sheet ) of 32 players aged (11-14) years who are divided into two groups of (8) players for each group after
putting (16) players away.
The two rescarcher uses the following statistical ways : ( percentage ، average ، standard deviation ، differences coefficient ، t-Test of related samples ، t-Test of in dependent samples ، person coefficient as will as spss way )
The two researchers find out the following conclusions :
-special practices of the upper and lower parts of the body lead ، to developing most carporal features and the achievement by comparing the before and after tests results for the standard group (Speed Endurance, Maximum Locomotive Speed, Strength Endurance of Arms and legs , power of Arms and legs, Strength Endurance of abdominal Muscles, Aerobic Endurance) and achievement.
The experimental group led to the best development as compared with the standard group that used the coach course in most corporal features and achievement in this study by comparing the results of the tests of the both groups.
The two researchers suggested the following points :
- The special kinds of practices of the way that divided the body into two parts (upper&lower) should be used in the training of chest swimmers .
-when using such a way coaches should regard the training distances in the sense that it should suit the competition distance related in to the type
of the activity being practiced .

The effect of skillful exercises by both training methods , The Repetition and Interval in some basic skills of youth football players

Maan Abdul Karim Jassem

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2014, Volume 20, Issue 65, Pages 145-168
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89576

The research aimed to detect the effect of:
1 .The Skillful exercises by repetition training in some of the basic skills of youth football players.
2. The Skillful exercises by interval training in some of the basic skills of youth football players.
The researchers used the experimental method for its convenience to the research nature. The research sample was consisted of (16) players from Qaraqosh football club players under (19) years age for the Season (2012/2013) .The research sample was divided into two experimental groups with (8) players per group , the homogeneity and equivalence were achieved between both of the research groups in (age, height and weight) variables and the basic skills under study which are ( short passing , (heading) hit the ball with the head , ball receiving , close shooting and dribbling).
The researchers had used questionnaire, personal interview and the test as a tools for data collection.
The researchers had designed two training courses , the first with the repetition training and the second with the interval training . The pre-skillful tests were carried out in two consecutive days, and then the training courses were performed in two intermediate cycles with undulation load movement (3: 1) in the amount of (8) short cycles , Next the post- skillful tests were performed with the same procedures that followed in the pre-tests.
The researchers had attained to number of conclusions and the most important one were :
1- The players of the first experimental group that used repetition training method were transcend on the players of the second experimental group that adopted the method interval training in the basic skills of football, that, (Dribbling, ball receiving , heading).
2- The players of the second experimental group that used interval training method were transcend on the players of the first experimental group that used repetition training method in (close shooting and a short passing) skills.
The researchers had recommended number of recommendations and the most important is :
The importance of applying the training courses with both training methods (The Repetition and Interval) based on correct scientific foundations in the developing all football basic skills

Differentiation between Excellent and First-Grade Players According to a Number of Skilful Variables and Body Measurements in Volleyball

Ghaidaa Salim Aziz; Ali Ibrahim Salih

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2014, Volume 20, Issue 65, Pages 169-202
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89577

The research aims at :
- Determining the most important skilful variables and body measurements for volleyball players ( 1st and excellent grades ) .
- Obtaining separately both functions of skilful differentiation and body measurements for volleyball players ( 1st and excellent grades ) .
The researchers have adopted the descriptive methodology with a survey style for its convenience to the nature of the research. The research community consists of the volleyball players . The sample has been selected randomly. It includes (29) volleyball players ( excellence Grade ) belonging to (Erbil sport club, Akad Einkawa club, and Shaklawah club ) and (48) 1st grade volleyball players belonging to ( Qaraqoush sport club, Ashourjah sport club , Suolav Al-Jadeed sport club, and Neshtiman sport club) . Thus, the total number becomes (77) players. A number of skilful tests have been applied ,like : the upper serve test , test of reception accuracy from serving , overhand passing test from rear area ,test of diametrical and linear smashing striking accuracy , screen test , and the test of defense skill accuracy from centre (6).On the other hand , the used body measurements are ( body weight , total body length , body length with hands up , arm length with the hand length , leg length , shoulders width , chest width, brachium circumference and thigh circumference ).
The results have been processed by using SPSS. So, the researchers have concluded the following results:
- Obtaining the equation of differentiation for the skilful variables and extracting three variables ( smashing striking , serve reception , and defending the field ) which have the ability to differentiate the volleyball players ( the excellent and the first grades ).
- Obtaining the equation of differentiation for body measurements and extracting three measurements (shoulders width, total body length, and brachium circumference) which have the ability to differentiate the volleyball players ( the excellent and the first grades ).
- Using the skilful variables and body measurements resulted from the research as an initial style in selecting the volleyball players ( 1st and excellent grades ) .
- The need to pay attention to the skilful variables and body measurements, which have the ability to differentiate the volleyball players to be a base and support for the volleyball coaches.
- Taking into account the following differentiating factors in volleyball when selecting and training players in addition to develop all the values as much as possible. The factors are : the skill accuracy of diametrical and linear smashing striketing , measuring reception accuracy from serving , defending the field , shoulders width , total body length and brachium circumference .
- Making studies on other morphological and functional variables that effect on players level in volleyball.

Leadership Empowerment for scouting education teachers in colleges and departments of physical education at the University of Mosul

Oday Al-Kwaz; Mohammed Miqdad Salem

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2014, Volume 20, Issue 65, Pages 203-235
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89579

Research aims to:
1. constructing measure of Leadership Empowerment for scouting education teachers in colleges and departments of physical education at the University of Mosul, from the students point of view .
2. Identify the degree of Leadership Empowerment and dimension for the scouting education teachers in colleges and departments of physical education at the University of Mosul, from the point of view of the students.
To achieve the goals of the research, the researchers used descriptive approach in survey style , the sample consisted of (286) female and male students , (193) of them from the College of Physical Education and (67) female and male students from the College of Basic Education Department of Physical Education and (26) female student of College of Education Girls Department of Physical Education.
Leadership Empowerment Scale was constructed on a sample of (177) female and male students, data has been processed statistically significant by using the mean, standard deviation and percentage and t-test for two independent samples and Pearson's correlation coefficient.
The researchers concluded the following:
1. validity measure of Leadership Empowerment to scouting education teachers in colleges and departments of physical education of at the University of Mosul.
2. the scouting education teachers in colleges and departments of physical education have a high degree in Leadership Empowerment and dimension.

Effectiveness of Using Both Slow and Ordinary Video Displaying on Learning the Technique of Performing Some Kinds of Smashing Strokes in Volleyball

Khaled Abdul-Majeed Al-Khateeb; Abdul-Rahman Oday Saeed Al-Dewachi

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2014, Volume 20, Issue 65, Pages 236-254
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89580

The study aimed at :
1. Revealing the effectiveness of using the style of slow and ordinary video displaying on learning the technique of performing some kinds of smashing strokes in volleyball .
2. Making a comparison in the effectiveness of using the style of slow and ordinary video displaying on learning the technique of performing some kinds of smashing strokes in volleyball in the post-test.
The researchers have hypothesized the following :
1. There were significant differences in the results of the pre-test and post-test for both research groups in learning the technique of performing some kinds of smashing stroke .
2. There were no moral significant differences in learning the technique of performing some kinds of smashing stroke in volleyball between both research groups in the post-test.
3. The researchers have adopted the experimental methodology for its convenience to the nature of the research problem . The research community has been selected randomly from the second-year students of sport education / Mosul university . The research sample includes two groups (e،f) . The number of the students is (30) students as (60%) selected randomly . The equivalence between both groups has been achieved in variables ( age ، tallness and weight ) ، some physical and motor traits and some kinds of smashing strokes in volleyball . The researcher used (personal interview and questionnaires ) as means of collecting data . The educational program has applied for (4) weeks as two educational units per week for each group . The time of the educational unit is (90) minutes for a period starting from 25/3/2013 till 18/4/2013 in the volleyball hall / branch of team games in the college of sport education / Mosul university .
4. The researcher used the following statistical means :Arithmetic mean، standard deviation، simple correlation coefficient (Pearson)، t-Test for the correlating and uncorelating samples equal in number، percentage ، index of reliabitiy .
The researcher has concluded the following :
1. Using the styles of video displaying (slow ، ordinary ) has a positive effect on learning the technique of performing some kinds of smashing strokes in volleyball.
2. The second experimental group that used the style of slow video displaying has the superiority compared with the first experimental group in leaning the technique of performing some kinds of smashing strokes in volleyball.
The researcher has recommended the following :
1. Using the style of slow video displaying in learning the technique of performing some kinds of smashing strokes in volleyball.
2. The need to use the various video educational means in the lessons of college of sport education.
3. Making similar researches and studies on other skills in volleyball.
4. Making similar researches and studies on other sport skills.
l

Constructing an indicator for performance effectiveness of futsal game

Thelam Younis Alawi; Ammar Shehab Ahmed

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2014, Volume 20, Issue 65, Pages 255-263
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89581

The research aimed at constructing ( an equation for performance effectiveness) during games as an indicator to reach the efficiency of players performance.
The descriptive approach method by survey style was used. The sample of the study consisted of futsal players of premier league clubs and elite clubs (Alfutuwwah club, Alshimal Gas Club, Balad Club and Ashti Club). The sample consisted of (92) players. Questionnaire and observation were used as a means for collecting data and through editing and designing the form of analyses, then finding its scientific basis, followed by suggesting an equation for performance effectiveness and finding its scientific basis in such as validity, and index of reliability then the validity of the criterion, while reliability was reached at by reconsider video analysis. Then the researchers used the mean, standard deviation, coefficient of skewenss, mode and chi- Square, all of which as statistical means.
Both researchers verified the normal distribution of the equation then they found the standard levels and degrees of the equation.
Both researchers recommended for what accords with the results of the research.

Constructing performance endurance tests for futsal players

Thelam Younis Alawi; Ammar Shehab Ahmed

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2014, Volume 20, Issue 65, Pages 264-282
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89582

The study aimed at: constructing (tests for performance endurance characteristic) as attitudinal indicators of futsal players. The descriptive approach by means of survey was used, the sample of the study included premier league clubs players and elite clubs players (Alfutuwwah, Alshimal Gas, Balad, Ashti). The sample consisted of (92) players, and questionnaire was used as a means for collecting data, through selecting behavioral attitudes and show them to the experts, then suggesting a unit of measurement, then finding and using the mean and the standard deviation, coefficient of skewenss, mode and chi-squre test as statistical means.
The findings of the study included the following:
1. Constructing (3) attitudinal indicators for performance endurance accord with the scientific conditions and the normal distribution.
2. The attitudinal indicator that were reached at:
3. Short term endurance performance that is based on running by Barrow method and passes futsal ball
4. Medium term endurance performance which was based on targeting and rolling among stakes with futsal ball
5. Long term endurance performance which was based on targeting and passes on both sides of the stadium of futsal game
6. Designing a unit for measuring endurance taking into consideration promotion of performance accuracy and the time of performance
It was recommended to use the attitudinal indicators which were designed in the periodical judgment on the level of endurance performance of futsal players.

Administrative and Technical Difficulties Faced by Basketball Referees in Iraq

Momen Emad Ahmed Al-Juwari; Khaled Mahmoud Aziz Al-Abadi

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2014, Volume 20, Issue 65, Pages 283-314
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89583

The research objectives are :
- Constructing a scale to recognize the most important administrative and technical difficulties faced by the basketball referees in Iraq.
- Identifying the degree of the administrative and technical difficulties faced by the basketball referees in Iraq.
- Identifying the kind of relationship between the administrative and technical difficulties that face the referees .
The researcher has hypothesized the following :
- There were administrative and technical difficulties facing the basketball referees in Iraq.
- There was a moral significant relationship among the administrative and technical difficulties faced by the referees.
The researchers have used the descriptive methodology with survey style for its convenience to the nature of the research. The research community includes basketball referees working in Iraq and holding international certificates , first, second , and third degrees in the branch sport unions for basketball in Iraq as (160) referees. The sample includes two parts : the first part includes the construction sample as (120) referees working with the branch sport unions of basketball in Iraq .The second part includes the application sample as (40) referees .
The questionnaire has been used as a means of collecting data .So ,the researchers have constructed a scale of administrative and technical difficulties . The scale includes (43) items .The data were treated statistically by using :the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, percentage law, assumptirn mean, Pearson correlation coefficient, t-Test for two independent samples, Alpha coefficient, Getman equation, and Spearman Brown equation.
The important results were :
- The validity of the scale of the administrative and technical difficulties faced by the basketball referees working in Iraq.
- The degree of the administrative difficulties faced by the basketball referees working in Iraq was (very high) ,while the degree of the technical difficulties faced by the basketball referees working in Iraq was (high) and the degree of both administrative and technical difficulties was (very high ) .
- There was a significant relationship between both of the administrative and technical difficulties.
- The shortage in the number of basketball referees working in Iraq compared with the comprehensive approach of the central union of basketball and its branches in the governorates .There number was (160) working referees .
In the light of the results , the researchers have presented a number of recommendations such as :
- Applying the scale of administrative and technical difficulties faced by the basketball referees after being adapted scientifically to other individual or team sport games and activities.
- The Iraqi central union of basketball and its branches in the governorates need to remove the administrative and technical difficulties faced by the referees via the coordination with the ministry of youth and sport and the sport clubs participating in the union activities.
The researchers have presented the following suggestions :
- Making a comparative study of the administrative and technical difficulties faced by the basketball referees working in Iraq to the referees working with other sport unions (individual or team) according to their referring degree .
- Working to issue a law of full-time referees for these who work in all sport unions during the sport season to do their tasks in the unions with preserving their formal rights at the establishments where they work in order to grant them chances of creativity.
- Calling Iraqi government to increase the annual budget of the Iraqi national Olympic committee in a way that covers all the activities of the central sport unions and their branches in the governorates.

Effect of a Suggested Psychological Program on Developing Attention concentration and Academic Achievement for the Students of College of Sport Education in Triple Jump Activit

Zuhair Yahya Al-Maadhidi; Fatin Wadallah Bakr Al-Nuaimi

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2014, Volume 20, Issue 65, Pages 315-342
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89584

The research aims at identifying :
- The effect of the psychological program in the post test for the experimental group on concentration of attention and academic achievement in triple jump.
- The differences between the experimental group and the control group in both tests of attention concentration of and academic achievement in triple jump.
The research sample included (38) second-year students / college of sport education / Mosul university ( 2013) . The sample is selected randomly . The researchers used the experimental methodology . The program application lasted (3) weeks as two training sessions per week.
The researcher used the statistical bag(spss) to process the data to obtain the arithmetic mean, standard deviation , and t-test.
After presenting and discussing results , the researchers obtained the following :
- The psychological skill program proved its positive effect on the psychological skill ,attention concentration of and academic achievement level in triple jump activity .
Establishing on the obtained results of the research , the researchers recommend the following :
- Stressing on using psychological skill program prepared by the researchers for its active role in improving the level of academic achievement in triple jumping activity .

Effect of a counseling Program to Lessen the Anxiety of Learning Swimming for the Students of College of Sport Education

Zuhair Yahya Al-Maadhidi; Mohammad Qaidar Mohammad

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2014, Volume 20, Issue 65, Pages 343-378
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.89585

The research aimed at :
1. Recognizing the level of swimming –learning anxiety for the first-year students / college of sport education / Mosul university .
2. Preparing a counseling program to lessen swimming-learning anxiety for the first-year students / college of sport education / Mosul university .
3. Finding the effect of the counseling program on lessening swimming-learning anxiety for the first-year students / college of sport education / Mosul university .
The researchers have adopted the experimental methodology for its convenience to the nature of the research . The research sample includes the first-year students / college of sport education of those can not swim. Thus, the research sample includes (20) students as ( 37.73%) from the total research community (semester 2012-2013).
The researchers have used (scale of swimming anxiety ) prepared by (Mohammad Hasan Allawi) . Also, they constructed a counseling program to lessen swimming-learning anxiety which they applied on the experimental research sample . The program includes (10) sessions .
The main research experiment has been applied on the experimental group at the swimming pool of Mosul university from 6/3 to 8/5/2013. The researchers have used the statistical means (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, percentage , t-Test for the correlated samples , t-Test for the independent samples, and simple correlation coefficient “Pearson” ).
The researchers have concluded the following :
1. The effect of the counseling program on lessening swimming-learning anxiety for the experimental group observed clearly via the appearance of statistical-significant differences between the experimental group and the control group and for the benefit of the experimental group.
2. The counseling program which applied on the experimental research group had a clear effect on their comprehension to their anxiety case and their dealing with it .
3. The researchers have noticed the research sample during the practical lessons of swimming , and find that the experimental group was able to learn swimming in a period shorter than the period lasted by the control group which indicates the effectiveness of the adopted counseling program.
In addition, the researchers have recommended the following :
1. The present counseling program can be useful in facilitating the task of ( the teachers and trainers ) in learning swimming for the future , and the importance of the counseling programs besides the educational programs of swimming .
2. The need to select counseling pearson of those with psychological- specialization or the experienced of psychological of counseling in order to apply the counseling programs.