Print ISSN: 1993-9345

Online ISSN: 2664-2514

Volume 20, Issue 64

Volume 20, Issue 64, Winter and Spring 2014, Page 1-505


Responses of some immune system parameters to moderate intensity effort in high temperature degree

Nashwan Ibrahim

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 1-32
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81898

The Responses of some immune system parameters to moderate intensity effort in high temperature degree has been studied in eight of elite nenava cycelist. Who were engaged to aerobic moderate intensity effort in normal circumstance (20 -24 C) and in high temperature (35-38 C) tests. The researcher used the experimental method that methodology of the research. He also used the test, measurement, and some medical and laboratory tools and devices. The studied immune system parameters are total (WBC) leukocyte differential (neutrophil- eosinophil basophil lymphocyte- monocyte) at rest before and after effort.
The finding of the research were:
1. First: The difference between the pre-test of the high temperature degree, and normal circumstance (represent the difference in rest)
2. The test of high temperature degree, and normal circumstance have showed no significant differences between them in total (WBC), eosinophil, basophil, monocyte, lymphocyte and that mean the high temperature degree, and normal circumstance have no effect on immune system parameters in rest.
3. The test of high temperature degree and normal circumstance made a significant increase in neutrophil in rest.
4. The test of high temperature degree showed no significant difference in neutrophil in rest.
Second: The difference between pre and post-tests of high temperature degree, and normal circumstance tests:
1. The post tests of high temperature degree which represented the medial effort effect and the high temperature degree effect showed significant increase in total (WBC), neutrophil and lymphocyte.
2. The post test of normal circumstance which represented the medial effort effect and the normal circumstance effect showed significant increase in total (WBC), neutrophil, and lymphocyte parameters.
Third: The difference between the post test of high temperature degree, and normal circumstance.
1. The high temperature degree test showed higher significant elevate in total (WBC) parameter.
2. The normal circumstance test showed higher significant elevate in total (WBC) parameter.
3. No significant difference has been noticed in total (WBC), neutrophil, and lymphocyte parameters between the post tests of high temperature degree and normal circumstance.
4. The high temperature degree test showed higher significant elevate in neutrophil parameter.
5. The normal circumstance test showed higher significant elevate in neutrophil.
6. No significant difference has been noted in neutrophil parameter between the post tests of high temperature degree and normal circumstance.
7. The high temperature degree and normal circumstance tests showed significant differences in lymphocyte parameter but have given no significant difference in comparison between them.
8. No significant difference have been showed between the post tests of high temperature degree, and normal circumstance in each of total (WBC), eosinophil, basophil, and monocyte parameters.
9. The significant increase in total (WBC) were resulted from the increase of neutrophil and lymphocyte on high temperature degree and normal circumstance tests.
10. The high temperature degree tests had no settle effect in impairing the immune system.

A comparative study in psychological counseling skills for basketball coaches of Premier League clubs among the advance and late positions the league

Isam Mohammed Abdul Ridha

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 33-48
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81899

Abstract
The research aims at Identify:
1- psychological counseling skills for basketball coaches of Premier League clubs among the advance and late positions in the league within the research sample.
2- Individual differences in psychological counseling skills for basketball coaches of Premier League clubs among the advance and late positions in the league within the research sample.
The total sample (48) players by(24) players .from advanced positions and (24) of the last player of the late positions on the league and which represented (40%) of the research community, using a scale of the skills coach in sports psychological Counseling which were stated by ( Mark Andreson) and (Judy Van Raltate) and ( Britton Brewer) and promising Arab image by (Mohammed A l arabi Shimon, and Magda Ismail) (2002) And after verifying the face validity and reliability, The statistical tools used are (the mean . standard deviation, the percentage and t- Test).
The researchers reached the following conclusions:
- the most of the psychological counseling skills for basketball coaches of Premier League clubs is well invested by the coaches in the psychological stages of preparation for their sports teams.
-The emergence of skill of communication between the skills of psychological counseling for basketball coaches of Premier League clubs and clearly to the need of players members of the research sample to solve their problems and improve the performance level

The relationship of some kinematic variables of approach and takeoff phases with accuracy and velocity of high spike in volleyball

Mohammed Khaleel Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 49-65
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81900

Research aims to:
- Identify the values of some kinematics variables for two phases approaching and the takeoff of high spike in volleyball.
- Identify the accuracy values of the spike in volleyball
- Identify the relationship between some kinematic variables for both phases of the approach and take-off in volleyball
- Identify the relationship between some kinematic variables for both phases of the approach and accuracy of high spike in volleyball.
Scopes of research:
The human scope: a sample of the players Nineveh province's volleyball
Place scope: volleyball court in the indoor games hall in the sport Education College Mosul University
The researcher used a descriptive method for it suitability for the nature of the research The research sample was selected and intentional which consisted of five players team representing the province of Nineveh volleyball, reaching mean age (21.333) years with a standard deviation (2.94) and who had previously training and practice . SPSS statistical software to extract statistical variables which were as follow:
1. The mean.
2. Standard deviation.
3. Coefficient of variation
4 - Simple correlation coefficient (Pearson)
The conclusions
The ball throwing angle effect in the ball speed in spike
- Arm rotation in a big angular velocity effect positively on the speed of the ball in smash beating in volleyball
effect positive the angle of trunk in speed of spike in volleyball

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBER OF BIOKINEMATICS VARIABLES AND FORCE-TIME FUNCTION IN THE TAKE OFF PHASE IN HIGH JUMP IN FUASBORY METHOD

Nawaf Owaid Abood Al-obaidy; Nawaf Owaid Abood Al-obaidy

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 66-94
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81901

Research’s aims: .To realize :
1. The values of some of Biokinematics variables in the takeoff phase in high jump in Fuasbory method.
2. The values of some of force-time function variables in the takeoff phase in high jump in Fuasbory method.
3. The correlation between the Biokinematics variables and force-time function in the takeoff phase in high jump in Fuasbory method .
The researcher has applied the descriptive method for its convenience with the nature of the research . the researcher choose the sample of physical education college students/ university of Mosul The research sample has consisted of (5) in high jump in Fuasbory method as while as the best jumper in all phases on the yaer2011-2012 . Each jumper was given (3) trials in each height according to the international law of track and field games. All the trials were filmed and the best trial was analyzed. The sample subjects have been filmed by using two video cameras that ( 25 ) frame / second in the high speed type Sony Japanese fashion as well as using the force platform of measuring ground reaction force prepared for this purpose . then the researcher extract areas and shapes of force –time function by Planomeetr equipment which measured unlike regular areas . After the analysis was achieved, data were statistically handled by applying SPSS application. Statistical means applied in the research are as follows: (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, Person simple corre1lation coefficient, variance coefficient and percentage).
The research Conclusions this :
1 . Has been significant relationship between some of the kinematics variables in time climb phase and angler velocity and circumference velocity and the highest of body mass center of gravity's with some of force –time function like area and time in different phases of ( impact – absorb – push ) in the take-off phase in high jump in Fuasbory method.
2 The less of time and area under the curve of absorb phase has positive inversion on the force –time function variables in push phase ) in the take-off phase in high jump in fuasbory method .
3 . Maximum force of reaction in the hit phase play effective part as the climb phase dependence on the climb force for crossing the bar as well as became highest .
4 . Pluralism the ankle angle of take of leg and the angle of knee to rest on leg the important factor to definition the trunk angle opportunity to realization best achievement in high jump in Fuasbory method .
The researcher has recommended the following:
1. Reducing the absorption phase as much as possible in terms of time saving the generated force during the impact phase in order to invest this measure ) in the take-off phase in high jump in Fuasbory method .
2 . . Developing the body angular velocity during the pushing phase for its positive reactions on real in the take-off phase in high jump in Fuasbory method .
3 . Confirmation on the performance as much as possible achievement of force generation associated with velocity to attain the best achievement in high jump with Fuasbory method .
4 . Use the video films style and movement analyzes by coaches and researchers by using modern equipment in order to find out the most important points of developing the technical performance for different activities and high jump one of them .

The Effect of Aerobic Endurance Training With Proposed periods Rest On the fatigue index and Recovery curve of heart rate for football players

Ziad .y.Al Saffar

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 95-108
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81902

The research aims at:
1-Finding out significance of the difference between pre and post – test for the two experimental groups in fatigue index.
2-Finding out significance of the difference between the two experimental groups in fatigue index in post-test.
3-Finding out the significance of the differences between the two experimental groups in Recovery curve of heart rate.
4- Finding out significance of the difference between the two experimental groups in Recovery curve of heart rate in post- test.
hypotheses:
1-There are significant differences between the pre- and post-test for the two experimental groups in the index of fatigue.
2-There are significant differences between the two experimental group in the index of fatigue in the post-test.
3-There are significant differences between the pre- and post-tests for the two experimental groups in the Recovery curve of heart rate.
4-There are significant differences between the two experimental group in Recovery curve of the heart rate in the post- test.
The experiment was applied on a population of players from mosul soccer club consisted of (14) players were deliberately chosen. They were divided into two groups (7) players in each group .equivalence between both groups under discussion were achieved concerning the variable of age ,tallness , weight ,anaerobic power, fatigue index . The pre-test has carried out of the variables : anaerobic power , fatigue index , and the average of heart rate in recovery periods , after the effort directly , and after (15,30,45,60,120,180 second) . Research procedures have also included two training programs lasted (8) weeks with (3) session per week . The first group was trained according to the interval training program with (1:1) ,(1:1/2) work relief ratio . Whereas, the second group was trained according to the proposed program with (1:1) ,(1:1/2) (1:1/3) (1:1/4) work relief ratio . After that the post- test was carried out .
Conclusion:
1- The Proposed Endurance training program with(1:1) (1:1/2) (1:1/3) (1:1/4) work relief ratio is relatively best than the interval training program with (1:1) ,(1:1/2) work relief ratio in fatigue index .
2- The Proposed Endurance training program with(1:1) (1:1/2) (1:1/3) (1:1/4) work relief ratio is relatively best than the interval training program with (1:1) ,(1:1/2) work relief ratio . specially at the third minute .

The Biomechanics Analysis for the human cartwheel and Arabic jump to the champion for Males and Females at Age (6-7) Years Old Using the AutoMatlab language

Obay Ramiz Abdul-Ghani

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 109-121
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81903

The Researcher aims to identify the values of some biomechanics variables for the human cartwheel and Arabic jump for males and females at the age of (6-7 years) besides the differences in some of the biomechanics variables in performing the human cartwheel and Arabic jump for males and females at the age of (6-7 years). Usually, the performance of beginners is accompanied by performance errors that which even the experienced trainers find difficulties in detecting because of the speed of performance. These errors remain until the correction stage and this exemplifies the problem that the study attempts to address.Thus, the biomechanics evaluation for the young gymnasts aids the trainers in focusing on the qualities and /or faults in performance to attempt to optimize the performance. The researchers sets the study questions by the statement:" Is there any significant differences between some of the Biomechanics variables for the two movements, when performed by males and females, though they both have achieved first place in the country competition in this event noting that they have achieved 1st, 2nd, and 3rd positions in gymnastic events for the age of (6-7 years)?"The location of the study was in the indoor gymnastic playgrounds in the Fatwa sports club and Qarakush club both located in Nineveh /Iraq in 2012. The researcher used the descriptive method relevant to the nature of the study while using the technique of scientific observation and investigation utilizing imaging using a video camera placed (4m) from the left side of the player's movement. The height of the center of the camera's lens from the ground was (0.71 m). Each group was assigned (3) three attempts and the best of these were analyzed. Data was statistically analyzed using the statistical package SPSS. After presenting the results the researcher concluded that the sample of males and females were almost equally in the values of biomechanics variables (no significant differences) in the movement (Arabic jump). The study revealed however, differences in some biomechanics variables between males and females in the movement of the human cartwheel. The researcher recommended the increase in training time during the training units for females and Using video capture and video cutting continuously by trainers in order to expound the subtle errors in the movements that can be corrected by the trainer

The Level of positive thinking and its relationship with the accuracy of defensive performance for the free player in Volleyball

Azad Hassan Qader

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 122-139
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81904

The research aims to identify the level of positive thinking and its relationship with the accuracy of defensive performance for free player in volleyball as well as find a relationship between positive thinking and the accuracy of defense in free volleyball player, the researcher used the descriptive method for a sample of 28 free player which represent teams of Elite league volleyball clubs. The researcher used the appropriate tools, means and equipment as well as performing mini study for the tests under consideration and the measure of positive thinking. After collecting data, the researcher processed them statically by appropriate statistical means and then they were displayed, analyzed and discussed.
The researcher concluded:
1- The members of the research sample (free player) have a high level of positive thinking because they achieved high scores in the very high and high levels of the scale results.
2- Achieve good results in the accuracy of the performance of defensive skills in volleyball.
3- There are significant correlation between the level of positive thinking and the accuracy of the performance of skills of transmit-receive and the defense.
The researcher recommended:
1- Emphasis on the implementing the concepts of positive thinking among volleyball players for its importance in changing the character of individuals and groups towards a better performance.
2- Coaches should be interested in developing the level of positive thinking of the free player during training modules for its direct relation ti the accuracy of defensive skill performance in volleyball.
3- Coaches should work on introduction of specialized skill exercises to develop accuracy of defensive skill performance of free player during training modules

The Emotional characteristics and their relationship with the level of performance for students in secondary schools in physical activity sports.

Zahaf Mohamed

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 140-169
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81905

This study, based on the fact that the identification of emotional traits and its relationship with the level of performance for students in tertiary education, physical activity during sports, it may reflect some indicators that could be used to attract educators and trainers to examine certain characteristics of interest as one of the basic principles of psychological preparation for players and success in the competition.

Therefore, the design of this study was to determine the level of performance experienced by students during the second stage of physical activity, sport, features and emotional, and thus determine the relationship between them.
The study aims to identify characteristics depending on the emotional nature of the activity and the level of high performance and low. In addition to knowing whether there are differences between the characteristics of psychological abuse. To do this, the researcher used the descriptive approach of the relevance of this study stratified random sample, bringing the number of 101 students selected from the secondary Muhammad Sharif mesadia m'sila , tear the three levels, a section of each level. And provide information that can be invoked in judgments about the emotional characteristics and performance of physical activity during sports, a test for measuring physical performance. In addition to measuring the emotional traits of Thomas. A. Titko. And after ascertaining the veracity and consistency of the test and measure the emotional characteristics were used. And then were collected and the preparation of definitive data for statistical analysis, and answer research questions. Based on the results of statistical analysis, it was found the following results: there is a weak correlation between emotional attributes and performance of physical activity in sport. However, this correlation is not the explanation in terms of cause and effect.

In addition to identifying differences and differences in the arrangement according to the emotional aspect of each activity. On the basis of a pattern or practice of sport, and the results also showed that the level of performance is not affected by different levels of emotional high and low, less than the capacity of the lack of emotional high or low level of performance and is an obstacle to the actor instead of the maximum capacity. On the other hand, there are features discrimination of students emotional level students in physical activity and sports.
In light of the outcome of research results by including the following are recommended:
- The extension of this study should be able to give us a clearer and broader, more comprehensive relationship between the characteristics of the emotional and the level of performance.
- A comparative study between emotional traits and level of performance in team sports and individual

A comparative study in psychological stability for the Iraqi universities varsity players of handball of the Northern region

Rafie Idriss Abdul - Ghafor

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 170-180
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81906

The research aims to identify the degree of psychological stability of the Iraqi universities varsity players of handball as well as individual differences between the Iraqi universities varsity in the degree of psychological stability. Descriptive method with curvy style has been used for its suitability for the current research.
The sample consisted of Iraqi universities varsity players participating in the tournament of handball of the Northern region, Researcher has used the psychological stability scale of the player amended by (Shammari 2010) as a research tool, the scale consists of (38) items and five substitutes (always fit with me, fit with me lot, fit with me a fair degree, fit with me a little, do not fit with me ),
After confirming the validity and reliability of the scale the data obtained were processed by researcher statistically using (the mathematic mean, the standard deviation, correlation coefficient, one way ANOVA test, L.S.D)
The researcher reached the following results:
1 – Participating in physical activates at the university varsity level considered a treatment tool to get rid of psychological stress of the university student
2 - There were significant differences in the degree of psychological stability among members of the research sample, specifically for the benefit of Tikrit University varsity

Effective use of the Games program is based on solving problems in mini cooperative education for pairs for the development of creative thinking and develop some basic skills (running, throwing, jumping) for the children of the preparatory department

Atallah Ahmad

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 181-208
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81907

This study aimed to identify the effectiveness of using the program for sports based on solving problems in each of the mini cooperative education for couples for the development of creative thinking and developing some basic skills (running, throwing, jumping) of children to preparatory section. We have put forward the hypothesis as follows there were significant differences at the level (≤ 0.05α) between pre- tests and post-test for the three groups (first experimental and second experimental, and control) in males and females in the level of creative thinking, and in some basic skills studied attributed to the strategies used for the benefit of post-test, and cooperative education was best than cooperative education for couples. For this purpose we have depending on the experimental method on a sample of 48 children from preparatory school departments neighborhood of 300 houses, were selected in a deliberate manner, divided into three groups, the group relies on mini cooperative education, and a group of cooperative education for couples, and a control group, male and female.
After a pre-test experiment has been applied to different samples and depending on the program consisting of 4 units per week by 45 minutes per unit and as long as this work for a month and a half or 6 weeks as a physical act. For a total of 24 share for a total of 1080 minutes after the post-test groups and collecting results we statistically analyzed using the appropriate equations we conclude that the use of various types of cooperative education have positive impact in the development of creative thinking skills in males and females. And the use of various types of cooperative education have positive impact in the development of basic skills (running, jumping, throwing). The researchers recommended that the use of mini cooperative education helps to develop creative thinking of a child preparatory department. And the use of mini cooperative education helps to develop basic skills such as (running, jumping, throwing)

Effect of Aerobic Effort on Oxidation and its Antioxidants and its Relation with lactate Concentration in blood of Soccer players

Diyar M. Ahmad

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 209-229
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81908

The aims of study are to investigate:
a. Effect of aerobic Stress on oxidation and its antioxidants for Soccer players.
b. The relation between oxidation and its antioxidants with lactic acid level for Soccer players.
Assumptions of the study:
 Existence of a significant difference between oxidation and its antioxidants before and after aerobic Stress in Soccer players.
 Presence of a significant relation between oxidation and its antioxidants with lactic acid level.
The samples of blood were collected from 14 Soccer players from Aala sports club which participated in Premier league in Kurdistan region (2011-2012). The studied parameters were malondialdehyde, glutathione, superoxidase enzyme, vitamin E and lactic acid. The parameters were checked before and after effort. The aerobic Stress was running for 1.5miles distance. The data were statistically treated using SPSS program (version17). The following results were obtained:
1. The concentration of malondialdehyde, glutathione, superoxidase enzyme and vitamin E significantly different before and after Stress.
2. The existence of direct relation between concentrations of lactic acid and vitamin E after aerobic effort.
3. No significant relation was found between lactic acid with malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxidase enzyme after aerobic stress
The researchers suggested that:
- It is necessary to check oxidation and its antioxidants to know the healthy state of players.
- More studies performed using different stress.
- The studies expand to cover other sport activities and for both sex.
- Increasing number of samples in future studies.

Application Quality Assurance System And Its Effect On Learning Some of Volleyball Skills

Laith M. Dawood Al-Bana

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 230-244
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81909

The research aims to:
• Applying Edexl system to ensure the quality of education in the practical lessons of volleyball
• Detecting the effect of Edexl system for the quality of education in learning the skills of top spin serve, under hand pass and over hand pass
The research consisted of students of the first and second year in the College of Physical Education at the University of Mosul for the year 2011-2012. The sample of the research was selected randomly by lot, which represented by two classes ( D & E). The class (D) was the experimental group which consist of (27) students, whereas the class (E) was the control group with (26) students. After the exclusion of a number of students, they became 15 students for each group. The researcher used the perfect experimental design called (Equivalent Group Design Of Post Test With Vigorous Control ). It has set a number of variables that affect on the independent variable, as well as the set of the experimental design. The experimental group applied the quality assurance system which depends on Edexl system, this variable blocked on the control group . The applied of quality assurance depends on three mechanisms (commissioning duties, short tests and projects)
The researcher concluded the following:

- Both groups achieved varying levels in learning the skills of volleyball (top spin serve, under hand pass and over hand pass)
- The use of educational quality assurance system achieves a better educated for the skills of top spin serve, under hand pass and over hand pass.
- The researcher recommended to use Edexl system to learn the skills of volleyball

Constructing Psychological Exhaustion Scale for the Athletic-Activity Practitioners from the Students of Mosul University

Ahmed Hazim Al-Ta

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 245-276
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81910

The research aims at :
- Constructing psychological exhaustion scale for the athletic-activity practitioners from the students of Mosul university
- Recognizing the level of psychological exhaustion level for the athletic-activity practitioners from the students of Mosul university
- Establishing standard levels for the athletic-activity practitioners from the students of Mosul university in the psychological exhaustion scale.
The researchers have adopted the descriptive methodology with a survey style .
The research community includes the students practicing athletic activities in Mosul university as (1686) students distributor into all colleges of Mosul university except college of education for girls because were no male students . The research sample has been divided into two samples : the construction sample represented by (1096) students at an average (65%) , and the application sample represented by (590) students at an average (35%).
The psychological exhaustion scale that which was prepared by the researchers will be used as a tool of collecting data .
On the other hand , the construction procedures were : ( determining the scale dimensions , determining the style of scale items , formulating the items of each dimension in its initial form , in addition to adopt the scientific steps and procedures in constructing the scale including the content validity , Face validity of the scale , the construction validity represented by ( the statistical analysis of the items ) with both styles of the contradictory groups , and the internal consistency ). Also, the re-test for reliability was used .
The statistical tools were ( the arithmetic mean , mode , standard deviation , coefficient of skewenss equation of ( Karl Pearson ) , simple correlation coefficient , t-Test, the assumptive mean of the scale and the percentage ).
The following is an explanation of the concept of psychological exhaustion:
• Exhaustion linguistically means exaggeration in act and it associates with fatigue and dedication to work .
• It means no adoption to work and Indicates that the individual fancies that his work something mischievous threatening and unsaturated him . So, the individual often becomes tired and bored of that work . Mostly , his subconscious destination is to change the quality of the work .
• The psychological exhaustion of the individual is resulted from the exposure to the constant pressures that excess his ability .
• It represents a negative case and response to the others.
• It leads to physical exhaustion , emotional exhaustion , lack of a sense of personal achievement , and the negative self-evaluation .
• It differs from person to another because of the individual differences and the difference of the psychological energy from one to another .
• It occurs to those who work and connect to people ,i.e. working in the field of human and social services .
There were three dimensions of the psychological exhaustion : the emotional exhaustion , emotional change , and lack of a sense of personal achievement .
According to that , the psychological exhaustion can be theoretically defined “ it is a case that occurs to the individual because of the pressures ,excessive load and the inability to be in compatible with it , which leads to the emergence of a group of multiple manifestations that include most aspects of life .This influences on the individual view to himself and the others .

A comparative study of some Biomechanics variables of throw - in from stability and movement for football players

Mohammed Khaleel

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 277-294
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81911

The research aims to :
1- Identify the values of some biomechanical variables for football players during the implementation of the throw in from stability and movement.
2-Comparison between some biomechanical variables of throw- in for the Player and the ball from the stability and movement.
Research scopes
1-the human scope: - sport Education college players for football in 2012.
2- Place scope: - Mosul University stadium.
3-. the temporal scope: - 27/2/2012 and up 29/2/2012
The researchers used descriptive method for its convenience to the nature of the research. The society of research consist of sport Education College of football in Mosul university which they were 24 players and nine players have been chosen from them as a sample of research
. Two digital video cameras (SONY) have been used. The first camera was fixed (7 m.) away from the player and the focus of the camera was (1.24) . The second one was fixed in a distance of (18.50 m.) in order to measure the variables of the ball. The focus of the camera was on (1.08 m.) height. The camera speed was (25 frames per second). The following statistical tools were used by the researchers > the mean, standard deviation, and (T) Test.
. The researchers have come to the following conclusions:
The distance of throw in from stability depends on bending the angles of body specialty the knee and hip and trunk
The distance of throw in from movement depends on the acceleration from the approach steps

Construction of a test to measure the speed and accuracy of the tennis serve from front and top in volleyball for the students of the college of Sports Education at the University of Mosul

Omar Samir Thenoon

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 295-311
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81912

Construction of a test to measure the speed and accuracy of the transmitter tennis serve from front and top in volleyball for the students of the College of Physical Education / University of Mosul.
To establish standard levels of test the speed and accuracy of the tennis serve from front and top in volleyball of the students in of Physical Education college / University of Mosul
stting of standard scorel of the speed and accuracy test of the tennis serve from front and top in volleyball students of the Physical Education college / University of Mosul
The researchers used a descriptive approach to solve the problem of research.
The research sample consisted of 80 students of the senior in the college of Physical Education for the academic year (2012-2013(
The researchers used a questionnaire and test as a tools of data collection. And the following steps have been followed by them of Experts.
The application of the test on the sample in an study aimed to identify the difficulties and problems that may encounter the researchers understand the research sample for testing as well as finding scientific measures of the test (validity, reliability, objectivity(.
The researchers used appropriate statistical methods to achieve the goals of the research, and the they found:
- The test of speed and accuracy of the tennis serve from front and top has the scientific standards of validity and reliability and objectivity,the standard scores and 6 .s scores from the raw scores of the research sample . the standard levels of the test
Recommended the Researchers recommended the use of the test in evaluate the students of the Faculty .
Constructed test in the assessment of students in the skill of tennis serve from front and top in volleyball

Constructing a Battery of Physical Fitness Elements tests for the Players of Elite Handball Clubs

Saad Basim Jamil

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 312-335
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81913

The research aims at :
- Recognizing the factors of the special physical fitness elements for the players of Iraqi elite clubs .
- Constructing a battery of special physical fitness elements tests for the players of elite handball clubs.
The research fields includes :
- Human scope : The players of (Al-Futwa, Al-Karkh, Al-Jaish, Al-Shurtta and Al-Kufa )clubs.
- Time scope : The period between (15/11/2011) to (1/4/2012)
- Place scope : Indoor halls of (Al-Futwa, Al-Karkh, Al-Jaish, Al-Shurtta and Al-Kufa )clubs.
The researcher adopted descriptive methodology with the correlation style for its convenience to the nature of the research. The research community has been represented by the players of Iraqi elite tournament clubs (term 2011-2012) which were (12) clubs . While the research sample included (70) players distributed into five clubs (Al-Futwa, Al-Karkh, Al-Jaish, Al-Shurtta and Al-Kufa ) , who represent (14) players for each club after excluding goal keepers. The researcher used a questionnaire , tests and the content analysis as a tool of collecting data.
The researcher used the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, standard error of the arithmetic mean, coefficient of skewenss (Person), and the factor analysis by the method of principle components of Hottling and using orthogonal rotation.
The researcher concluded the following :
1. The Factor analysis by using the orthogonal rotation performed on (24) tests of special physical fitness representing the six assumption factors of the special physical fitness. showed five factors accepted in terms of factor acceptance ,which were :The first factor is the transitional speed factor, the second is the explosive force factor for the legs, the third was the explosive force factor of the arms, the fourth was the fitness factor, and the fifth factor was the force factor discriminated by speed.
2. The special physical fitness battery has been extracted in the light of its accepted factors which units achieve highest saturations on the factors ,as follows:
a- Test of 300m. run.
b- Test of the throwing medicine ball of 3 kilos .
c- Test of push up until exhaustion .
d- Test 2000 m run .
e- Test o vertical jump .
3. The selected five units of the special physical fitness were considered pure measurements just because their saturations on the other factors were about to be zero . This result confirms the decrease of the inter correlation among tests.
The researcher recommended :
- Using the battery of the special physical fitness in the practical tests to recognize the training program efficiency at the end of the special physical preparation for Iraqi handball clubs.

Leading Indicators of De Cobertan The Founder of Modern Olympic Games

Reyadh A. Ismaeel

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 336-356
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81914

The research aims to present leading image according to leading indicators of De Cobertan the founder of modern Olympic games ( features , characters and validity) , and introducing leading reflections for his philosophy in physical education , the researcher used historical method for collecting the information through analyzing the contents of sport history and connecting it with the special administration resources, and it becomes clear that this Olympic character had great leading frame and it complete each other , and it could be the first step in the strategy of reviving modern Olympic games and lightening its first candle and improving it and what it had of leading features ( intelligence , body factors , ambition , enthusiasm , hardworking , consciousness , educational qualification and organized mentality ) and the characteristics it had that it prepare it to lead the international Olympic committee(experience , self- sacrifice ,imagination ability , leading behavior , the desire of improvement and changing ) , and it presents leading validity considerations ( aim faithing, forward leading , sight piercing , responsibility bearing and good behavior). and all that were accompanied with a correct Olympic sport philosophy and its correctness make it more able to practice the equipment of Olympic course effectively , and also it refers to produce conversion leader who have the most prominent future leader features

Constructing theoretical cognition test for the Defensive tactics in Basketball for 4th year Students / College of Sport Education / University of Mosul

Ghaidaa Salim Aziz

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 357-395
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81915

The research aims at :
Constructing theoretical cognition test for the defensive tactics in basketball for 4th year students / college of sport education / Mosul university.
Setting standard degrees for the theoretical cognition test for the Defensive tactics in Basketball for 4th year Students / college of sport education / Mosul university
The researcher has adopted the descriptive methodology with the correlating relationships for its convenience to the nature of the research . The research community includes 4th year students as (161) students .On the other hand , the research samples include the construction sample (100) students divided into : reliability sample (30) , survey experiment (10) , discrimination power (60) , while the application sample includes (114) students .
The means of collecting data : the researcher has used the questionnaire , analysis , collecting data , and testing as means of collecting data . The tests include : the test of theoretical cognition of the defensive tactics in basketball . The research has required constructing this test for the 4th year students / college of sport education . The construction steps include ( preparing the initial form , preparing the test items on their initial form , finding the scientific features (the jury’s validity and self- validity)of the test , reliability coefficient and the statistical analysis of the items ( ease and difficulty coefficient , and the internal harmony among test items ) as well as finding the key of correctness for test items ).
The researcher has used the statistical means : arithmetic means , mode, standard deviation , inversion coefficient , simple correlation coefficient , the assumptive mean of the test , ease and difficulty coefficient , discrimination coefficient and percentage ).
The most important results obtained by the researcher are :
The cognitive test of the defensive tactic in basketball for 4th year students / college of sport education is a subjective means can guide us in evaluating students .
Adopting the standard degrees in evaluating 4th year students in the defensive tactic in basketball .
The most important recommendations are :
Adopting the cognitive test of the defensive tactics in basketball as a means of evaluating data relating 4th year students / college of sport education.
Designing cognitive and informational tests to evaluate data related to the other sport activity

Effect of a Training program by Using Self –Regulation strategies of Mood for Handball players

Nadhim Shakir Al -Wattar; Mahmood Mattar AL- Badrane

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 396-444
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81916

Research aims to :
- Constructing a training psychological program to regulate and manage the mood of the handball players according to various scientific strategies .
- Defining the effect of the training program by using various strategies of self-regulation mood in modulating mood

The researchers used the experimental method for its suitability to the nature of the research, and the research community included (20) players between the ages of (18 - 20) years, whom they were used to apply (a measure of mood and pilot study, and reliability) they selected in comprehensive restriction manner. The research tool included (Brunel) scale prepared by (Peter Terry et al, 2003)which is one of the foreign and international standards of foreign and international tool for collecting data. The statistical tools were limited to the following scales as a tool of , standard deviation ,of skwenss coefficient , simple correlation coefficient , percentage and anova one way analysis .
The researchers reached the following conclusions:
- The effectiveness of the psychological training program , prepared by the researcher was verey effective in adjusting negative mood to positive mood
- The psychological training program effects on decreasing the degrees of the negative scale axes and increasing the degree of the positive mood axis for the experimental group
- The psychological training program effects on self-regulation of mood for young players via applying various strategies of the training program

Classification according to the Obtained of the Physical Variables for Futsal Players at the Secondary School in Mosul City

Waleed Rajab; Zuhair Ahmad

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 445-491
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81917

This study aims at :
- Recognizing the most important skilful and special physical variables for futsal players of the secondary school teams in Mosul city.
- Obtaining the discrimination function special physical variables for the basic and the alternative players.
1. The researcheres has adopted the descriptive methodology with survey for its convenience to the study nature and objectives. The research community has includes the players of Mosul secondary school teams who participate in the futsal school championship ( term 2011- 2012) . The sample has included (216) players representing (18) secondary school . A number of skilful and physical tests have been applied ,which are :
2. Factor analysis with basic components method and the perpendicular rounding performed on (19) physical tests have shown nine factors, eight of which have been accepted in the light of the terms set for factor acceptance which are:( the explosive force for the first factor, fitness for the second factor, the shifting speed for the third factor, the force discriminated by the speed of the fourth factor, speed for the fifth factor, movement speed for the sixth factor, the force discriminated by speed for the seventh factor, and movement speed for the eighth factor).
3. Throughout the discriminating analysis of the special physical variables , the researcheres has obtained five variables : ( )The equation has been as follows :
The discrimination equation=(-18.984)+(0.409)×(20mr from amoving start )+(0.564)×(running 20 mrfrom ahight start with tuming ahead )+(0,320-)×(5partridags in the controlling legs)+(0.423) × (10successive jumps forfarthest distance) .
4. The discrimination equation of special physical variables has the ability to discriminate the players at a proportion of success (89,4%).
In the light of the abovementioned conclusions , the researcher has recommended the following :
- Adopting both groups as a whole or as variables by the trainers who work with futsal school teams and tests and selecting them as an indicator adopted in the test and selecting players.
- Adopting the variables illustrated by the discrimination analysis of the school teams at all directives of school activity in Iraq.
- Performing studies including other physical and functional variables that affect the players' level at futsal game.
- Performing similar researches and studies at other levels or on female teams.
- Setting standard degrees and levels for both groups

The effect of the specific training to improving the special physical ability and record level to the tem of Alaqsa University shot put skills

Hisham Ali Al-Aqra

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 64, Pages 492-505
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2014.81918

The study aims to know the effect of the specific training to improving the special physical ability and record level to the tem of Alaqsa University shot put skills The researcher used the experimental method, the research sample is the tem of Alaqsa University shot put skills 3 players. The most important result was that the training program has improved the special physical ability and record level as the following, the ability is %6.87, the speed is %6.95, the Muscular strength "right" is %6,95, the Muscular strength "lift" is %7,22, the flexibility is %28.35, the power is %4,17 and finally the record level is %6,32.