Print ISSN: 1993-9345

Online ISSN: 2664-2514

Volume 19, Issue 60

Volume 19, Issue 60, Winter and Spring 2013, Page 1-441


Dominant body type and it is ability to contribute and predict in motor fitness

Shihab A. Al-Thaher

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 1-19
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66637

The aim of the study is to build a standard sample for body type specific for the students of teacher preparation institute in Mosul city and knowing the dominant body type of the students .the sample chosen according to the stage age . and studying the relation between the components of body type and elements of motor fitness and determination the ratio of roles of body type in motor fitness.
The population of the study are students of teacher preparation institute at the years (2009-2010)which are 275 students . the sample were chosen randomly from the five stages which are 150 students .to obtain body type the researcher choose some body anthropometry measurements. To determine the level of motor fitness the researcher choose the following tests (standing broad jump, 30-meter sprint,5 kg medical ball put from standing on one foot ,ball put and uptake, numerical circles, ramp tie fbeugen, zigzag running 7×2. to obtain the results the researcher use the following statistical aids(mean, standard deviation , person correlation variable, chi square zigzag slope analysis) by using the statistical program (SPSS). There are several conclusions from this research, the most important conclusion is quantitative determination for body type components of the students of the institute in general. which represent muscular equilibrium according to the study stages in which represent muscular equilibrium according to the mesomorph pattern is the dominant. There are variation in body type repetition in which the mesomorph pattern is the dominant and differ from the other patterns which are ordered as(ectomorph, mesomorph and endomorph).There is inverse relation between the explosive strength of legs and transitional speed as the endomorph pattern in crease. There are no relations between explosive strength of arms, coordination, equilibrium, elasticity, fitness and endomorph pattern.

Biomechanics Analysis for the Open Forward and Open Backward Flips Performed by the Iraqi Gymnastic player Ehasn Zyad

Obey Ramiz Abdulghani

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 20-34
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66644

The study aims at expounding some of the biomechanics variables of the open forward and open backward flips performed by the Iraqi champion in gymnastic on the floor mat and determines which of the two moves is easiest in performance by the gymnasts The scope of the study included the human aspect represented by the Champion of Iraq in gymnastic who achieved the bronze medal in the Arab championship held in Egypt.The researcher used the descriptive method which appropriate to the nature of the study and the sample of the study was selected by the deliberate method which is the champion of Iraq (Ehasn Zyad) in gymnastic who achieved the bronze medal in the Arab championship held in Egypt. Data were collected by using scientific observation such as a video capture device (Sport Cam) with a speed of 250 frames/ second. The frames were captured from the right side of the player for each performance . The researcher used the software specialized in biomechanics analysis called (Maxtrack) combined with a program inevented by the researcher( Dr Abi Ramez and assistant lecturer Farah Tariq/ computer science college ) which called (Automatlab). The kinematical variables of the open forward and backward flips were displayed on one table to facilitate comparing the results and analysis.The results showed that the open backward flip is easier in performance than the open forward flip according to the biomechanics analysis. the researcher recommended that the results and variables for the two moves should be used by other researchers in other similar studies and conducting similar studies for other types on moves performed by the champions and finally, the trainers of youths and children players in the college of sports education should start with their training courses using the easy moves of the performance point of view which is the open backward flip followed by the training courses for the open forward flips while allocating it a longer training time.

Analytical study of some of the problems faced by the students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in weightlifting skills education

Azeer K. Al- Shinbari

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 35-59
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66648

The purpose of the study: To identify the main obstacles faced by the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in learning the skills of weight training, identify problems The most unity among students, conceived proposal commensurate with the potential of students.
Selected sample of the research the way intentional to all students who have completed a course weight lifting for the academic year the second at the University of alagsa of 22 students from the first group in the department and was the most important results and problems in the educational aspect and the more severe problems with the sample, the difficulty of learning the skills of lifting weight to the need of myoneural agree, and do not have the opportunity training for the players to lift weights.
That there is no problem in the psychological aspect and there was a dispute between members of the research sample in all the paragraphs in the psychological aspect.
1- There are problems at the center of the health aspect where most of that weight lifting increases the incidence and tear muscles, and are not medical examination consistent and continuing throughout the semester, as the researcher recommended the need for attention to the theoretical in the sport of weight lifting to increase the number of lectures per week .
2- Provide an opportunity for students to train in your spare time.
3- Paying attention to individual college games such as weight lifting in the same interest in games of collective nature, such as the popular foot

Methods to the attention of the team, the first Palestinian to basketball

Ramzi R. Jaber

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 60-76
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66654

The study aimed to identify ways of attention of the team, the first Palestinian basketball according to the variables of center play, experience in the play, To achieve this, the study was conducted on a sample of (15) players from the team, the first Palestinian to basketball, which represent (100%) of the community study. And to collect study data and to achieve its objectives, the use of descriptive methodology, and test methods for attention in the design of basketball and Summers Smmmers Powered Allawi (1998). The study results showed that the methods of attention to the players the first Palestinian to basketball came medium where I got a percentage of (65.1%) It is clear from the results of the study to focus attention narrowly occupied the first rank relative weight of (68.5%), which occupied the focus of attention of internal wide second relative weight of (67.9%), followed by a reduction of focus of attention in the third relative weight of (65.6%), and occupied the focus of attention outside the wide fourth position relative weight of (64.5%), while his overload of stimuli internal fifth weight relative amount (63.7%), and came to overload external stimuli in sixth place of relative weight (63.3%), followed by the information processing in the seventh place of relative weight (63.1%). As well as is clear from the results of the study that there was no statistically significant differences at the level of (0.05) in the methods of the attention of the team, the first Palestinian to basketball due to the variables of center play, experience in the play.

The Impact of teaching Style - According to the Department of learning to use Learning techniques to acquire and retain certain types of shooting Basket Ball

Hussein. S. Ibrahim

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 77-124
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66661

The Research Aims At:
• Discovering the difference between the after and before examination for each of three groups using learning circle style- according teaching arts usage at learning and preserving for some Shooting types at basket ball.
• Discovering the difference between the before and after examinations for each three groups using learning circle style- according learning art usage in learning and preserving for some Shooting types in basket ball.
• Discovering the superiority among the three groups in learning preservation for some Shooting types of basket ball.
The sample has been divided into three equal numbered groups: Each group consists of 12 students, first experimental group, second experimental group and disciplined group. Besides, there is a harmony among the three groups in age, height and weight. There is also adequateness in physical features and Shooting types in basket ball.
The research also depended on personal interview, questionnaire, tests, measures and evaluation form being the tools and ways for collecting data and consequently research aim. At this prospect, the bellow teaching syllabuses have been organized:
• First teaching syllabus accommodates s the usage of learning circle style according to technical teaching flex face implemented by first experimental group.
• Second syllabus embraces the usage of learning circle style according to technical teaching for showing scientific films by data show linked to computer practiced by second experimental group.
• As for the disciplined group, teaching syllabus learning styles (common) has been used.
Each of teaching syllabuses consists of 9 scientific units meaning 3 teaching units for each experimental Shooting in three experienced Shooting in basket ball (free Shooting, jumping Shooting and gradual Shooting). Furthermore, the time for each teaching unit is (90) minutes. Worth to be mentioned is that the teaching syllabus has been implemented from (23/1/2010) to (20/2/2010) - two days per week for each group, the researcher relied on the below statistical tools:
Mean standard deviation, linked sample tests, variance analysis, L.S.D and using the following law for: The quantity of performing losing memory= after examination – preserving examination.
The research concludes that:
1- Activating both relied teaching syllabus in learning circle style- according to the use of teaching techniques in learning some Shooting types in basket ball.
2- Teaching syllabus- implemented by first experimental group and relied on learning circle style- according to the use of teaching techniques ( flex face) and second experimental group relied on learning circle style according to the usage of data show- discover the differences having virtual significance in both before and after examination in learning at some Shooting types in basket ball.
3- First experimental group and second experimental group beat disciplined group in learning some Shooting types in basket ball.
Second experimental group relied on learning circle style- according to the use of teaching techniques (data show) takes the superiority place compared to first and disciplined group in learning and preservation for some Shooting types at basket ball

The impact of the use of Holly Quran recitation in the development of some basic offensive skills for basketball players on wheelchair

Tahsin Ali Ismail Sherwani

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 125-154
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66728

The Research aims:
1 - Preparing a developing program by using relaxation in the indirect mental training method for developing some basic basketball skills for the basketball wheelchair players.
2 - Knowing the impact of developing program by using the Holy Quran recitations in relaxation for developing some basic basketball skills for the wheelchair players.
The research employed the experimental method for its appropriateness for the nature of the research. The research community comprised of basketball wheelchair players. Who are registered in the Iraqi Paralympic Committee as basketball teams of the provinces of (Erbil, Dohuk and Sulaymaniya). The research sample was selected intentionally (12) Basketball wheelchair players of Erbil Team province. They were divided into two groups of equal numbers i.e. (6) players per group, one of them Control group and the other Experimental group. The developing methods have been distributed to both groups of educational research by draw.
The control group performed the training curriculum of the wheelchair basketball team (the basic offensive basketball skills), whereas the experimental group performed the same curriculum in addition to the proposed program, the latter was performed in indirect mental training method. The educational program consists of (12) developing unit for the experimental group distributed to (6) weeks, i.e. (2) developing units per week, and the duration of each module is (90) minutes.
Both of the groups of research semiweekly (on Saturday and Monday) were launched the implementation of the developing programs on 14 May 2011, and lasted for (6) weeks; i.e. ended on 20 June 2011.
The following statistics methods were adopted Arithmetic Means, Standard Deviation, Percentage, T. test for the paired samples one way, and L.S.D test. The research was analyzed by using the SPSS statistical program.
The Research concluded:
1 - The indirect mental training manner had a positive effect with differences in moral significances. The aforementioned manner was more effective positively than the traditional method in their moral significances in the basic offensive skills of basketball in the research sample.
2 -The time period (8) minutes of indirect mental training, in which the Holy Quran recitations were used, was very impressive and important, the players were returned to the point of almost pre-exercise psychological comfort, and the muscle and the mind relaxations.
3 - The quality and the sweetness of the reciter's voice as well as the recitation of the selected Sura were very influential factors in the research. They helped to attract the players' attentions and their attendance, and keeping quietness in order to listen to scented recitations.
4 - The players with special needs, especially of those who conducted the research (basketball wheelchair players) are committed to strongest commitment to psychological and emotional stances, and they revolt and then calm down quickly, thus they are in need of special psychological treatment, especially by the coach and supervisors.
The Research Recommends:
1 - Using indirect mental training method rather than traditional one in training, teaching and developing to the basketball wheelchair players.
2 - Emphasis on the use of mental and muscular relaxation with beginners, because they lead to the development of attention and concentration, and the reduction of anxiety and stress during the teaching and developing basic basketball skills of the wheelchair players.
3 - Using indirect mental training method for other players - with special needs who exercise other games - in their training, teaching and developing programs.
4 - Emphasis on the psychological aspect, good treatment and patience of the coach during the teaching of the basic basketball skills for gaining good motor skill and desired results.
5 - The research recommends the Paralympic Committee to depend on training, teaching and developing programs which contain mental training.

Transformed Leading and its Relation With the Reasons of Organized Changes and its Shapes and Styles of Reducing it in branch of Sport federation in Nineveh

Audai Gh.Al-Kawaz

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 155-185
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66729

Research aims recognizing at the following :
1.Transformed leader characters for sport federations chief.
2. Resisting the change in changing entrances.
3. Resisting the change because the individual factor with the change include .
4. Resisting because the organized factor with the change include.
5. Shapes of change resistance .
6. The styles of reducing change resistance.
7. The relation between transformed leading and organizational change resistance.
The descriptive method is used , the data consists of (44) member from organized staff members in sport federations after excluding federation chiefs distributed on (22) sport federation .(Al – Ghamedi 2001 ) Scale is used that is modificated by (Al – Aazemi 2006) to measure transformed leading. And using (W.J.Reedin and Powell ) scale which is modificated by (Al-Kawaz 2005 ) to measure transformed leading . And in statistical treatments , used the mean , percentage and (chi-square)
.The most important conclusions are :
1.The federation chiefs of branch sports in Ninavah have transformed leader cgaracter in medium level.
2. The leval of conservatism when making technological changes and changing in work and changing in organizational structure range between low and very low for federation members of branch sport in Ninavah .
3. Sport federation members do not practice any shape of change resistance shapes in active way .
4. The positive impulse and participation in decisions- making is the styles which reduce change resistance in medium , while adequacy of communication and availability of administrative leading , and timing change, so it will reduce the change in low shape .
5. There is negative immaterial relation between Change transformed leading in change entrance and change resistance because of organized and individual agents . Where as there is not relation between transformed leading and shapes of change resistance and its styles.

Constructing and Applying Some Physical and Skilful Tests for Futsal Female Players

Hadi Ahmed

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 186-206
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66730

The Research Objectives :
- Designing and constructing some physical and skillful tests for futsal females players
- Setting standard degrees and levels of the physical and skillful tests for futsal female players.
The Research Fields :
Man field : The female players of the Northern region clubs ( Tal-Esqaf, Battnaya,Qaraqoush,Bashiqah , Al-Qoush, and Dohuk ).
Time field : The period from 5/7/2011 – 2/10/2011.
Place field : The stadiums of the above mentioned clubs.
The research community consists of the futsal female players of the Northern region which involves ( Tal-Esqaf, Battnaya,Qaraqoush,Bashiqah , Al-Qoush, and Dohuk ) . So, the sample of the construction consists of (57) female players, while the application sample consists of (35) female players of an origin (107) female players .
The following statistical means have been used :
The arithmetic mean, the standard deviation, simple correlation coefficient (Person) , t-Tests for the independent sample , percentage, and modulated standard degree (6-segma).
The most important results obtained by the research are :
- Achieving constructing a test for measuring the power distinguished by the speed of the leg muscles of the futsal female players.
- Constructing a test of measuring the shooting skills for the futsal female players.
The most important recommendations are as follows :
- Adopting the test of power distinguished by the speed for the futsal female players.
- Adopting the test of shooting for the futsal female players.

Constructing the Rule Knowledge Test of Tennis for sport Education College Students at Mosul University

Ethar A. Al-Kareem Ghazal

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 207-237
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66731

This research aims at the follows:
1.constructing the rule knowledge test of Tennis for second stage students of sport education college at Mosul university.
2.Evaluating the rule knowledge of tennis for second stage students of physical education college at Mosul university.
3.Setting standardized levels of rule knowledge test for second stage students of physical education college at Mosul university.
The researcher was used a descriptive method with survey style. The research society included (146) students of the second stage, and included of (102) student construction samples. The application sample included(44) students .In order to reach the tool research, the researcher used content analysis followed by steps for constructing knowledge test. The statistical processing depended the mean, mode , standard deviation, ,skewness , Simple correlation coefficient , and Spearmen-Brown equation reliability , standard levels, and percentage .

The researcher concluded the following:
1. The constructed test for the rule knowledge of tennis is reliable test for evaluation for information and knowledges for the sample of this research.
2. The constructed test if tennis characterized with high scientific elements.
3.The research sample has a knowledge level of tennis rule that positively affected its educational qualification in tennis.

Effect of Using Tasks Distribution Formats among Cooperative learing Groups for Aquiring Performance of some free style Wrestling holds

Hazim A. Matrood

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 238-260
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66732

The study aimed at being acquainted with the effects of using tasks distribution formats among cooperative learning groups for acquiring performance of some free style wrestling holds. The Experimental method was used since it is convenient to the nature of the study. The society of the study included (143) students of the third stage of the sport education college , University of Mousl at academic year 2011-2012. The sample included (5) classes with 16 students each. The sample divided into four experimental groups. The First and Second groups used one of the tasks distribution format among cooperative learning groups for complete skill. The Third and fourth groups used one of the tasks distribution formats among cooperative learning groups for partial skill . The program for every group lasted (8) weeks with (2) learning sessions . The time of the learing session was (90) minutes. Standardized tests were adopted to achieve the study objectives . After concluding the tests and processing them statistically , the study concluded the following:
1-Teaching by using tasks distribution formats among cooperative learning groups had contributed in acquiring the performance of some free style wrestling holds.
2- The first Experimental group , used one of the tasks distributions formats among cooperative learning groups for complete skill, had proved an efficiency compared to the other experimental groups which used the partial skill for acquiring the performance of some free style wrestling catches.
3- The first Experimental group , used one of the tasks distributions formats among cooperative learning groups with Auto(loose) format of the skill, had proved an efficiency compared to the other experimental groups which used the directed (systematic) format of the skill to acquire the performance of some free style wrestling holds.

The study recommended the following:
-It is necessary to use one of the tasks distribution formats among cooperative learning groups for complete skill while learning motor skills for students.
-It is necessary to use one of the tasks distributions formats among cooperative learning groups for Auto(loose) format while learning motor skills for student.

Constructing a Sport Frustration Scale for the Advanced Players of Mosul City Clubs

Firas Mahmoud Ali Al-Khokhi

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 261-292
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66733

The Objectives of the study :
- Constructing a sport frustration scale for the advanced players of Mosul city clubs.
- Knowing the level of sport frustration for the advanced players of Mosul city clubs
- Setting standard levels for the measurement of sport frustration of the subject sample.
The descriptive approach with a survey style has been adopted for its convenience to the nature of the research. The research community include the advanced players of Mosul city clubs (2011 - 2012) recognized by the directorate of youth and sports / Nineveh government ,representing (623) male and female players distributed on (9) sports clubs (Al-Mosul, Al-Fitwah, Nineveh, Ayad Sheat, Al-Mustakbal Al-Moshriq, Ommal Nineveh, Al-Suqour aero club, Al-Fatat and Um Al-Rabia’in fos chess) .While the basic sample of the research has included (464) players randomly chosen from the research community. The sample has been divided into two samples one of them was : (320) players as a construction sample representing the other one was (69%) and (144) players as an application sample representing the basic research sample .
The researcher has used sports frustration scale ,constructed by the researcher throughout this study, for the advanced players of Mosul city clubs .The construction procedures include :
( the first pilot study of the scale, forming the items of each field in their initial form, the apparent validity of the scale, the second pilot study of the scale, the vace validity (the statistical analysis of the items ) by both extreme different groups, the internal consistency and the reliability via re-testing) . The statistical means have restricted on : The simple correlation coefficient of Person, t-Test for two independent samples and for a single sample, the assumption mean of the scale and percentage .
The researcher has concluded the following :
- The effectiveness of the sport frustration scale constructed to measure sport frustration degree for the advanced players of Mosul city clubs.
- The advanced players of Mosul city clubs in general enjoy natural sport frustration level
- Standard levels for measuring the sport frustration of the subject sample were set.

Psychological and Social Climate and its relationship with Sporting achievement motivation for Mosul University Varcity Players of Team Games

Mohammed Khalid Al Zubeidi; Anmar Abdal satar aldabbagh; Ali AlHeyali

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 293-311
DOI: 10.33899/rjss.2012.164145

This study aims to identify:
Level of psychological and social Climate and achievement motivation for Mosul
University Varcity players of Team games, as well as to identify the relationship of
psychological and Social Climate with achievement motivation for Mosul University Varcity
players of Team games.
The researchers used descriptive method with correlated style for its relevance to the
nature of the research, and the research sample consisted of Mosul University Varcity players
of Team games for academic year (2011-2012) who are (64) player. The data were collected
using psychological, social Climate and sporting achievement motivation measurements, and
the data obtained by the researchers was treated by using (percentage, arithmetic mean 
standard deviation, simple correlation coefficient and T-test for one sample) and The
researchers concluded the following:
- Members of the research sample have good levels of psychological and social Climate,
Which originates with man since his childhood.
- Members of the research sample have good levels of sporting achievement motivation, that
is because they have personal convictions Which was a result of their achievements.
- There is significant relationship for psychological and social Climate with sporting
achievement motivation for Mosul University Varcity players of Team games.

A comparative study in organizational culture between the administrative and technical staffs of the participating teams in the West Asian Taekwondo Championship

Waleed Ragab; Mahmood Shker; Thabit Ahmed

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 312-325
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66735

The research aims to identify the organizational culture of the Angels and administrative technical staffs for teams participating in the West Asian Taekwondo Championship, and the difference in organizational culture between the administrative staffs of art, and the level of the dimensions of organizational culture (cooperation, innovation, conssinon, efficiency) from the viewpoint of administrative technical staffs. Descriptive approach was used with survey, style the research sample consisted of (44) people (28) administrative and (16) art divided into four teams (Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine
To achieve the objective of this research the researchers used a questionnaire of organizational culture prepared by the (Alkhhali and Tamimi, 2008), where the questionnaire organizational culture (26) items distributed in to (4) areas:(cooperation, innovation, consistency, efficiency), and was processing the data statistically using the ratio percentages and the arithmetic mean, standard deviation and assumption mean alpha coefficient and (T) test. The researchers concluded the following:
1 - the emergence of a high level of organizational culture reflects the importance of its elements from the standpoint of administrative and technical staffs of the participating teams in the West Asian Taekwondo Championship.
2 - There are no significant differences in organizational culture between administrative staffs and technical staffs for the participating in teams in the West Asian Taekwondo Championship.
3- the emergence of variation in the levels of the dimensions of organizational culture (cooperation, innovation, consistency, efficiency) from the viewpoint of administrative and staffs for the participating in teams in the West Asian Taekwondo Championship where it came from levels of the dimensions of culture of management (cooperation, innovation, cohesion) high and (effective ) is very high. While levels of the dimensions of culture came to the Angels art (collaboration, innovation) and high for (consistency, efficiency) is very high.

The relationship of the Basic education skills according to standards of the quality of teaching and concept of academic component the students of self Salah Al-Deen University

Firas A. salim

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 326-342
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66736

Aim:
Identify the relationship between the basic educational offeciencis according to the quality of teaching and academically concept of the student of Physical Education college at University of Salah Al-Deen.
The researcher used descriptive curriculum using survey method, The student of Physical Education college assimilate the sample of research while the research tools were measuring teaching efficiencies which include (62) passages and prepared measures of self-concept of academic component which includes (50) passages. The validity and reliability of the instrument of both methods has been confirmed.
After the instruments have been applied to individual samples and obtaining their response, the out comet data has been uploaded and the statically using (arithmetic mean ,standard deviation and coefficient of simple correlation has been using the program SPSS).
The researchers concluded a set of conclusions which includes:
The necessity of emphasizing the measures of self-concept of academic competent for the students at the end of each school year and for the various stages of study to find out the problems and difficulties that face the student whether internal or external.

The philosophical Indications of Rational and Irrationality Thoughts between students of University of Mosul, for practitioners of sports Activity (Comparative analysis)

Hadeel Dahi Abdullah

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 343-362
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66737

The emerging problem of research in the detection of the distribution of ideas of rationality and irrationality, and to find differences between the members of the sample as a whole, which is expected to benefit in the description and interpretation of this relationship, and thus enrich the theoretical side by building a base of qualitative and quantitative information additional to the body of knowledge exists, so that benefit from them by those on higher education to check on its input as a student outputs basic, for amendments to the plans, programs and educational projects to ensure quality of output, improvement and development based on the prevalence of ideas of rationality and irrationality and research aims to identify indications philosophical ideas of rationality and irrationality among the students of the University of Mosul and the differences in students 'scores on a scale ideas (depending on the different of gender (male, female and on the differences in students' scores on a scale of ideas irrationality and the differences in degrees of students (depending on the specialty (practitioners and non-practitioners of sports activity and the different order of ideas of rationality and irrationality in the sample by gender. Descriptive method was used with survey styles for the purpose of reaching the goals of the research, was chosen as the research community in the manner intentional and of some students of the University of Mosul, and of their number (380) students. For the purpose of processing the data statistical looks was used (percentage - the arithmetic mean _ standard deviation – t. Test-and medium-Alfred). Through the presentation and analysis and the discussion of the results the reached the following conclusions:
1 - the irrational ideas were between students, practitioners and non-practitioners of the sports activity.
2 - Females are more prone to irrational thoughts than males.
3 - students, were participate in have sports activity irrationality ideas more than of the non-practitioners students .
1 - the need to adopt educational programs in universities about the irrational thinking through lectures and various media.
2 - Need to establish centers for family counseling and run by qualified specialists in the psychology of family upbringing in the family in general and females in particular to overcome the problems of family.

A comparative Analytic study of some (kinematics) variables between the Grab start of conventional and track position from above platform to begin of Nineveh governorate team Swimmers

Falah Taha Hammo

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 363-374
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66738

The research aimed at:
1. Recognizing the values of some Kinematics variables of the Grab start stage from conventional and track position from above platform to begin.
2. Performing a comparison between the values of the Kinematics variables of the Grab start stage from conventional and track position.
The researcher supposed that there were significant differences between two positions.
The descriptive method was used. The sample included (5) swimmers of the senior group of Nineveh team. The technical scientific observation, analysis and measurements were used as mean to collect data to obtain some of the kinematics variables values and measurements values, to achieve the technical scientific observation accurately, videography was used. The study included a number of Kinematics variables of the Grab start stage from conventional and track position, the data have been processed statistically by using the mean, standard deviation and (t) Test.
The researcher concluded the following:
There were significant differences between some Kinematics variables of the Grab start stage from conventional and track position for the benefit of conventional position. The researcher recommended some recommendations to be utilized in the learning and coaching to get the best performance.

Effects of Repeated Anaerobic Effort on Heart Rate during Various Effort and Recovery Periods and the Level of Accumulated Lactate for Sprint Runners

Kessra A. Fathy

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 375-385
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66739

The research aims at being acquainted with the effects of anaerobic effort on Heart rate (HR) during various recovery periods of multiple sprints for sprint runners. The descriptive method was used since it is convenient to the nature of the study. The sample included 7 sprinters chosen intentionally from the short distance runners of Nineveh state team. The experiment included Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) of 6 sprints to cover 35 meters with 10 seconds among. HR was measured for each sprint and during the recovery of the whole test after 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 3 minutes, 4 minutes and 5 minutes. In addition, the venous blood samples were drawn at the fifth minute of the recovery to measure the lactate concentration.
The research concluded the following:
 There is a significant increase in HR while transfer from the rest to the first repetition of the anaerobic effort and the increase continues till the fourth repetition only as a result of direct response of cardiovascular system to the effort. But the difference will not be significant when transferring to the fifth then the sixth repetition as a result of reaching to the maximum consumption of Oxygen.
 There is a significant decrease in HR just after completing the effort and the decrease continues till the fifth minute of the recovery.
 There is a significant difference in the blood lactate concentration between the rest and after the anaerobic effort as a result of multiple repetitions with limited relieve interval among.
The most important recommendation of the research for coaches is a necessity of using trainings with limited relives rest among repetitions for improving the ability of athlete to perform large training

Implications for sports Obelisk Badra Sumerian

Sauod A. Mehsin

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 386-411
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66740

The research aims to identify the following:
- Obelisk Badra Sumerian history by identifying the place in which they found in it, its history, and specifications.
- To identify the configurations of sculpture in the obelisk through the study of the four facets and the eight formations.
- The type of sport on the obelisk and the relationship between each aspect of the formation of the obelisk and all aspects of the four configurations.
The researchers used the historical method and the analytical method for the appropriateness and nature of the research.
Tools and methods used: the researchers used optical image analysis of samples using research techniques and computer tools (Adobe Photoshop), and previous studies.
The researchers concluded the following:. That the obelisk found in the area of Badra in the Diyala province of Iraq in the seventies, back to the historical period 2600 BC. M and the subject expressed in sculptural formations of the Obelisk of wrestling game.

EFFECTS OF THERAPUTIC EXERCISES PROGRAMM FOR REDUCING PAIN OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

Muneeb A. Fathi

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 412-425
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66741

The aim of this study was preparing program of therapeutic exercises for reducing the pain of knee Osteoarthritis (OA). The study also aimed at improving the mobility of the knee joint in addition to improving the flexibility of the joint while extending and flexing movements.
The sample of study included (24) patients which were reported at therapeutic department at Al-Salaam learning hospital. The sample was (7) males (17) females aged (47 to 58) years and they had early OA knee according to an orthopedic diagnostic. The study depended on the scale of (KOOS) in order to assess the symptoms and pain levels of the knee joint. In addition the study assessed the ability to perform certain daily activities, the motion range of flexibility at the injured knee joint while extending and flexing movements and the mobility to walk by 6min./meters walk test with indication of the distance achieved.
After processing data statistically, the study concluded that the therapeutic exercises has effective and positive role in decreasing knee pain and related disability and improving daily activates in addition to the range of motion while extension and flexion of the knee joint. The study concluded also that the pain is the main cause of all knee symptoms and if it reduced, all things will improved.
The study recommended preparing and improving a therapeutic exercises program by the physiotherapy centers. It is necessary also to explain the importance of physiotherapy since it includes exercises which are in turn more effective and safety than drugs which have side effects.

Analysis of the differentiation of fitness elements for handball players

sad Basim Jamil

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 60, Pages 426-441
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2013.66742

The research aims at :
1. Obtaining the function of discrimination for the elements of physical fitness for the handball players.
2. The research community consists of advanced elite Iraqi clubs of handball for the sport term (2011-2012 ) . While , the sample of the research includes the players of ( Al-Karkh, Al-Jaish ,and Al-Futwah clubs ) representing (42) players , (14) players for each club after excluding the goal keepers . The researcher adopts a questionnaire , tests , and content analysis as tools of research. The physical tests are which were used : 400mr. run, barrow, set up with extended legs (10 seconds) , 40mr. run , vertical jump, and throwing medical ball (800gr.) with one hand .
The following statistical means were used : the arithmetic mean , the standard deviation , the simple correlation coefficient , regression analysis by the method of (Enter ) and discrimination analysis , the standard degree (6 sigma) .
The researcher has concluded a number of results like :

Obtaining the test that differentiates the players represented by (400mr. run) test .He also recommended to adopt the discrimination function in prediction and classification among the handball players.