Print ISSN: 1993-9345

Online ISSN: 2664-2514

Volume 17, Issue 56

Volume 17, Issue 56, Winter and Spring 2011, Page 1-317


A comparative study in the controlling effect of (load & reiteration duration time) by physical exercises on a number of physical and skillful variables for young football players

Zuheer Q. Alkhashab

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 56, Pages 1-21
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2011.6113

The idea of the research lies in two proposed training courses for developing the personal physical aspect based on high intensity interval training method and with the rotational technique for handling individual differences through the two techniques of control (time & reiteration) the researchers have applied- in both courses- the level card concerning each player taking into account the individual differences among the players in order to reveal physical levels of each player and progression between a single medium session and the one that follows.
The research has aimed at revealing the following:
1. The statistical significance differences between the two techniques of controlling load and reiteration duration time in a number of physical and skilful variables of the post test.
2. The change ratios in certain number of physical and skilful variables regarding the two controlling techniques of young football players.
Through these two objectives; two hypotheses have been established as follows:
1. Significant differences have been found between the two techniques of controlling load and reiteration duration time in a number of physical and skilful variables of young football players in post tests and in favor of ( the technique of controlling load duration time).
2. There has been a difference in the change ratios regarding a number of physical and skilful variables between the two techniques of control among young football players.
The experimental methodology was applied for its convenience with the nature of the research and the two training courses have been conducted on a sample of (20) young football players aged (16-19) from Ninevah football club chosen intentionally and randomely divided (by lot) on two experimental groups in the amount of (10) players for each group. Research procedures have included designing two proposed training courses to control the load volume, one of which represented by (controling the time of load duration) and the other is represented by (controlling the load volume) as well as carrying out a number of pilot experiments. Procedures also included pre physical and skilful tests. Before starting the course, the five constant exercises' maximum values throughout the two courses were identified and registered in the level card concerning each player. Execution period of the two courses has lasted nine weeks in the amount of three training units in each short session. Finally post physical and skilful tests were carried out.
The researchers have applied the following statistical means:
(arithmatic mean, standard deviation, Person's simple correlation coefficient, percentage, t-test for independent samples, t-test for correlated samples and change percentage).
The following conclusions were attained by the researcher:
1. The technique of controling load duration time has achieved progression in the arithmatic means rearding all the physical attributes (abdomen speed-deferentiated force, legs' force endurance and flexibility) beter than the technique of controling load reiteration at comparing the findings of post physical tests in favor of the technique of controlling load duration time.
2. The technique of controling load duration time has achieved progression in the arithmatic means rearding all the physical attributes (the accuracy of remote scoring, the accuracy of the long pass and stopping the ball) better than the technique of controling load reiteration at comparing the findings of post skilful tests in favor of the technique of controlling load duration time.
3. There has been a varied difference in the change percentage of all the physical and skilful variables (abdomen speed-deferentiated force, legs' force endurance, flexibility, the accuracy of remote scoring, the accuracy of the long pass and calm down). This change was in favor of the technique of controlling load duration time.
4. the attribute of flexibility has achieved the highest difference in the change percentage in favor of (the technique of controlling load duration time).
The researchers have recommended the following:
1. The potentiality of applying both techniques according high intensity interval training method and by the rotational technique and the level card that are based on scientific bases in developing the physical aspect as well as the skilful level of young football players.
2. Using the level card in the training courses for its impact on realizing the differences among the players' levels.
3. The need for using the rules of high intensity interval training method when developing ((abdomen speed-differentiated force, legs' force endurance, flexibility).
4. The need for including the attribute of flexibility during the in-between rest periods in the training courses for the evident pregress it has achieved.

Study the contribution Rate of the momentum of some body segments of the overall momentum of the body to the stage of takeoff in the long jump

Nadia T. Noori; Thaer Ganem Mala Alow

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 56, Pages 22-35
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2011.6125

Abstract
The amount of movement has a significant impact on the achievement during the stage of takeoff in the long jump as a jumper in good performance in order to achieve the highest level of achievement and this requires the jumper to involve all segments of the body in performance. The research aims to identify the percentage contribution of the momentum of the body segments of the momentum the total for the body to the stage of takeoff of the long jump. And to identify the relationship with the momentum of the body and body segments with the level of achievement.
The researchers hypotheses that there is disparity between the proportion of the momentum of some segments of the body of the momentum overall in the stage of Takeoff of long jump, researchers used the descriptive approach is adequate to the nature of the research. The sample consists of (6) Jumpers of those who received the first six position in the Iraqi Championship, which was held on the Stadium of Arbil, sports Club, and in order to reach biomechanical analysis the researchers used video imaging and the following programs: I Film (Edit 1.3), Adobe Premier (6.5), ACD See (10), Photo Manager, Auto CAD (2007) and Microsoft Office Excel (2003). The researchers used statistical tools such as the following: The mean, standard deviation, simple correlation and the percentage of contribution.
The researchers found that the momentum of the trunk came in first place by a contribution of (0.985), and then came the head in the second by a contribution of (0,953). While the leading leg came third with a contribution of (0.938), after that the takeoff leg came fourthly with a contribution of (0.803) , While the arm that is contrary to the leading leg came fifth with a contribution of (0,749), finally came the arm that is contrary to the takeoff leg with a contribution of (0.080).

THE EFFECTE OF APPLYING COOPERATIVE LEARNING ON OBTAINING AND CERTAIN BASIC SKILLS OF BADMINTON SPORT

Safa Alimam; Ayad Mahmood; Intidhar Ilyas

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 56, Pages 36-51
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2011.6135

Abstract
The research aimed at recognizing the effect extent of the cooperative learning technique on learning certain basic skills of Badminton game. The research was conducted on a sampIe intentionally chosen fram the of Alawa'il private intermediate school in Ninevah province consisted of (20) subjects from the 1st intermediate class. Skillful tests regarding the basic skills of the Badminton game were performed and the data obtained by the researchers were handled by applying (standard deviation, arithmetic mean, and T-test).
Resullos have shown significant differences between students' mean grades of both the experimental and control groups (the first and the second) in favor of post-tests as well as significant differences in all tests of both research groups in post-test in favor of the first experimental group. therefore, researchers recommended that cooperative learning technique should be used in learning and obtaining certain basic skills in Badminton sport and other sports as well.

Analysis study for some kinematical variables of a weight of various intensities in snatch lift

Saad Al Dulaimi

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 56, Pages 52-71
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2011.6139

The research aims at :
1. Identifying the values of some kinematical variables of the kinetic track of the weight for the three attempts with various intensities in snatch lift for the research sample .
2. Identifying the differences between some kinematical variables of the kinetic track of the weight for the three attempts with various intensities in snatch lift for the research sample .
3. Drawing the kinetic track of the weight for the three attempts with various intensities in snatch lift for the research sample .
The sample consisted of (6) advanced weight lifters whom they have and the achievers of advanced ranks in Iraq tournament 2010 . So ,they have been selected randomly for their success in the three attempts according to their serials in snatch lift . The researcher has adopted the technical scientific observation , the test and measurement , and analysis as means of collecting data to obtain some kinematical variables of the weight . Video camera has been used and placed on a distance of (8) m from the right side , so the height of the lens is ( 1.50)m from the stage .The speed of video camera is (25)Picture/second . We have obtained the variables of deviation and heights in snatch lift from weight movement track to the stages of snatch lift ( the first draw , knees , the second draw , flight , downfall stages ).The researcher has used the following statistical processors (arithmetical mean , standard deviation , T-test , and percentage rule ) .
The researcher has concluded the following :
1. There were no significant differences between the kinematical variables ( H5,H6,H7 ) of the barbell trajectory between the first attempt and the second attempt also with third attempt advantage to the first attempt in snatch lift.
2. There were no differences in the values of some kinematical variables of the barbell trajectory for the three attempts in snatch lift which were larger than Iraqi extents of the previous studies like (D3,D5,D6) variable in deviations as well as (H8) variable in the heights .
3. The form of kinematical of the barbell trajectory of the of the barbell for the third attempt in snatch lift for the sample has been better than the first and second attempts for the kinetic track has been close to the gravity line which is for the benfit of the weightlifter during performing weight lifting. While the form of the kinetic trajectory of the of the barbell trajectory in the first and second attempts was similar.
4. It has been observed that all Iraqi lifters jump back during performing the three attempts in snatch lift for the sample .

An evaluative study of some skill faults of volleyball tennis serve Assistant professor Ahmed

Ahmed. H. AlSweede

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 56, Pages 72-84
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2011.6137

The Introduction and the importance of the research:
Volleyball is considered one of the ball games in special and a team game in general which is included in the general framework of the sport activities for most of the countries developed in the field of sports as this game become characterized by the dynamic which leads to a high level of excitement especially when practicing the requirements of the game, because there are a variation in its kinetic rhythm and that is clear through the kinetic variety, and this entailed the necessity of creative abilities harmony which get in accord with the required performance during the real contest. (Hasan, 1998, 9)
The technical skills are the movements that should be performed by the player in accordance with the circumstances required by the volleyball game in order to reach positive results, saving the physical effort and delaying the state of tiredness for the players and that is the reason behind mastering them completely.
The players should perform all the basic skills in an equivalent level so that each player can accomplish his duty during playing.
So, it is important to analyze the technical skills into their stages in order to be learned easily and accurately taking into consideration the law of the game. Despite the fact that the skills seem to be easily performed, but they require a great deal of effort in order to master them according to the law of the game represented by the short time of touching the ball, identifying the touching of the ball, the small size of the field and the flying speed of the ball and other aspects.
The research objectives
-Identifying the technical faults in the tennis serve in volleyball for the second year students in the college of sport education in the University of Mosul.
- constructing up an evaluative program to correct the technical faults of the tennis serve in volleyball.
- Identifying the effect of the evaluative program of the skill performance faults on the accuracy, speed and the strength of the tennis serve in volleyball.
The hypotheses of the research:
- The performance of the research sample concerning the tennis serve in volleyball is characterized by a number of technical faults.
- There are significant differences in the level of performing the variables of accuracy, speed and the strength of the tennis serve in volleyball between the control and the experimental groups in favor of the experimental group
- There are significant differences between the pretests and the posttests for both control and the experimental groups in the accuracy, speed and the strength of the tennis serve in favor of the experimental group.
The research domains:
- The human domain: The second year students in the college of sport education at the University of Mosul.
- The temporal domain: From 1/12/2009 until 1/3/2009.
- Spatial domain: the gymnasium of volleyball, branch of team games, college of sport education, University of Mosul.
The research Methodology:
The researcher used the experimental methodology as it is suitable for the nature of the research.
Conclusions:
1- The correctional exercises had a positive effect on improving the accuracy of the serve .
2- The correctional exercises had a positive effect on improving the speed of the serve for the sample.
3- The correctional exercises had a positive effect on improving the serve arm peripheral speed for the sample.
The correctional exercises had a positive effect on improving technical performance of the serve for the sample.
Recommendations:
1- Using the correctional exercises to develop the kinetic skills of volleyball players.
2- Conducting similar studies on the skills the current research didn’t addressed.
3- Holding training courses for the coaches concerning identifying the performance faults and how to correct them be means of filming and seeking the assistance of experts to analyze the skills.
4- Directing the coaches to correct the faults by objective evaluation in younger ages.

Nose and skeletal patterns, is there a relationship?

Manhal Sultan; Thamer Thannoon

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 56, Pages 85-107
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2011.6127

ABSTRACT
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the nasal length and projection with the sagittal and
vertical jaw parameters.
Material and method: One hundred digital true lateral cephalometric radiographs were selected from the files of the
patients attending the orthodontic clinic in the College of Dentistry at Baghdad University and classified according to the
ANB angle into class I and class II (50 cases for each group). Eleven skeletal and 2 nasal soft tissue parameters were
measured using AutoCAD program. Independent samples t-test was used to evaluate the genders and classes differences
and Pearson coefficient of correlation was used to show the relationship between the nasal and skeletal parameters.
Results: The results indicated that the males had longer and prominent noses in both classes. On the other hand, there was
non-significant correlation between the sagittal relation and the nasal parameters, while there was significant correlation
between the facial heights and nasal parameters.
Conclusion: The noses in males were longer and more prominent than females. The sagittal relation parameters had no
influence on the nasal parameters in contrary to the facial heights.
Key words: Nasal length, projection, skeletal relations

A Comparative Study in the Development of a Number of Basic Skills in Soccer for Cubs in the Age Category of(9-12) years old

Bashar Sa’eed; Shihab Thaher

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 56, Pages 108-129
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2011.6124

Abstract
The study aimed at expounding the differences in a number of basic skills in soccer for the late childhood period in the age category of (9-12) years old. The researchers hypothesized that significant differences exist in some basic skills among various ages of the late childhood period between (9-12) years old. The researchers used the descriptive method using the survey which is appropriate to the nature and objectives of the study. The population of the study consisted of (200) pupils joining the primary school team players in the center of Hamdanya District for the academic year (2009-2010) while the study sample consists of (132) players representing (6) schools. the data was collected through survey and analyzing of the contexts of scientific literature pertinent to the subject of the study to determine the basic skills in soccer. The analysis showed that the skills were ( shooting , dribbling, bouncing the ball in the air, pass, and shooting for a short distance). The skills were presented to specialists in this field who validated.
The researchers used the following tools for (SPSS) package software (Arithmetic mean, standard deviation, Pearson’s simple correlation coefficient, (F-Test) for unidirectional variance analysis, percentage, and (L.S.D). The researchers reached a number of conclusions as follows :
o The arithmetic means showed a development in the basic skills of soccer with the progress in age (9-10) (10-11) )(11-12) .
o Real and ordered differences were found based on the statistical significance among the three age categories in the skills of (shooting) represented by (shooting towards a goal drawn on the wall) , and the skill of dribbling (represented by the test of zig zag running with ball) , and the control of the ball represented by the control of the ball in the air .
o Non ordered differences exists between the age categories in the skills of passing (represented by passing to a target drawn on the ground) , and precision of shooting as no significant differences were shown between the ages of (9-10) (10-11) in those skills.
Based on above , the researcher recommended a number of recommendations.

Constructing a Knowledge Scale Of the theoretical and rules content Of hand ball for junior students of physical Education College in Mosul University

Abdul Kareem.K.Ghazal

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 56, Pages 130-164
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2011.6128

Abstract
The research aims at the following :
1. Constructing a Knowledge scale of the theoretical and rules content of handball for the junior students .
2. Evaluating the Knowledge level of the junior students in the theoretical and rules content of handball .
In order to do that the researcher used descriptive method with survey style . The Society was (187 ) students which were divided into two samples , construction , and applied one which consisted of (40) students while the construction sample was distributed as follows (20) students for reliability (10) for pilot study and (100) for statistical analysis .
Many research and statistical tools were used to collect data and then to construct the scale.
The researcher concluded the following :
1. The constructed scale was very effective in measuring the theoretical and rules content of handball for junior students
2. The junior students were distinguish as far as their Knowledge in handball was concern .
Finally the researcher recommended many recommend ions , the most imported one was using the constructed scale by the teachers of handball when ever they want to evaluate students in handball .

Effect of Learning Program by Using Mental Imaginary in Learning and Retention Some Skills for Female- Futsal in sport Institute

Warhe Mohammed; Mohammed Asmer

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 56, Pages 165-184
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2011.6134

Abstract
The aims of the study are to explore the following:
1- The effect of learning program by using mental imaginary and traditional style in learning some basic skills for female Futsal.
2- The differences in post tests between two groups in learning some basic skills for female Futsal.
3- The differences in arithmetic means between two groups in retention some basic skills for female Futsal.
Experimental Method was used to suit the nature of the study. The sample of the study consisted, of (30) female students, from sport Educational Institute in Duhok Center for the studying year 2008-2009, Which divided into two equal groups of (15) girls in each group (experimental and control). Homogeneity and equivalence between two groups was done in (age, height, Mass, Mental sport Imaginary scale, some Motor and Physical elements as well as some Basic skills of Female Futsal
The researchers depended on the interviews , questionnaire , Tests and measurement as being tools to collected data. A learning program by using mental Imaginary was constructed for the empirical group, Consisted of (16) units for each group for (8) Weeks, each two learning units to be taught in one Week for each group, with (50) minutes for each learning units. The researchers adopted the following statistical methods such as (Arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and (t) test for paired and unpaired samples).
The researchers concluded the following:
1- The effectiveness of the learning program by using mental imaginary in teaching some basic skills of Female Futsal.
2- The traditional style in the sport institute has percentage efficiency less than the suggested learning program in learning some basic skills
for Female Futsal .
3- The experimental group excelled the control group in Retention some basic skills for Female Futsal .

constructing a test Of shooting accuracy for Penalty in water polo

waleed k rajab

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 56, Pages 185-199
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2011.6129

Abstract
The research has aimed at constracting atest Of shooting accuracy for Penalty in water polo.
The population of research consisted of (146) students from senior student in the college of sport Education at the University of Mosul for the year (2009 – 2010), the Sample of study consisted of (90) students selected deliberately, which represented a percentage of (61.643) from the main research population, The researcher has applied statistical means such as the percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, Mode, coefficient Skwenss, chi-square test and t-test of independent samples.
The most important conclusion which the researcher found:
- the Test which was constructed measure the shooting accuracy very precisely for the spots penalty shooting in water polo.

Introducing a Computer Program to Automatically Determine Biomechanical Variables Of Athletic Moves After Feeding the Program with Minimum Information

Abi abdulaghany; Farah. Muhamed

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 56, Pages 200-216
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2011.6130

Abstract
The study aims at devising a program that uses the Matlab package and also compatible with the AutoCAD software in order to automatically determine the biomechanical variables of athletic moves after feeding the program with minimum information within the movement. As the researchers recognized the fact that the number of researchers that are capable of kinematic analysis are limited , and they spend hours to determine the biomechanical variables in their researches, the researchers set fourth the problem of the study in questioning if it is possible to write a program capable of determining the largest number of biomechanical variables with highest precision and shortest time. Thus the researchers set out to devise computer program to perform the task and minimize the time of the analyzer in determining his research's variables . The study hypothesized that the results can be precise and identical to the values of variables determined using the traditional analysis programs and methods. The sample of the study was the Iraqi champion in Gymnastic in the amateur category. The researchers adopted the descriptive method which is appropriate with the nature of the study. The results of the study's variables were presented first using the traditional methods form and then the results using the devised program and comparing them . The researchers concluded that Matalab and AutoCAD packages can be tuned with the aim of determining the kinematic variables including the joints of the human body during the athletic movement. The work was a result of collaboration between researchers in the fields of biomechanics and computer science to developed such programs .

The Preferred Leadership Personality Type Among the Training Staffs of National Basketball Teams During the West Asian Competition Based on the Training Certificate

Khalid Mahmmood Aziz; Zohear Eehea Mohamed

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 56, Pages 217-228
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2011.6136

Abstract
The study aimed at expounding the following :
1- The preferred leadership personality type among the training staffs of national basketball teams during the west Asian competition.
2- The differences among training staffs of national basketball teams in the preferred leadership personality type during the west Asian competition based on the training certificate.
The study adopted the descriptive method appropriate to the nature of the study . The study sample consisted of (8) trainers from (4) national basketball teams from ( Iraq , Syria , Iran and Palestine) . The preferred leadership personality type scale( DISC) of the trainer was used in the test .the scale was translated by Dr ( Swedan ,2006) and modified by Dr( Alkawaz 2007) . After the validity and truth of scale was verified , the data were statistically analyzed using the percentage, Arithmetic mean, Standard deviation , and the T-test.
The researcher concluded the following :
o The preferred leadership personality type among the training staffs of national basketball teams during the west Asian competition is (cautious) .
o No significant differences were found in the preferred leadership personality type among the training staffs of national basketball teams during the west Asian competition based on the training certificate

The effect of using proposed program for hurdle gymnastic on some of the physical variables and talent level of the primary school students.

Afrah Younis; Safad Muthafar; Muhammad Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 56, Pages 229-255
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2011.6140

Abstract
The physical education lecture especially in the primary schools (ist and 2nd levels ) became routinly done with out benifit and with no aim in all its parts especially its preparation part .
The researchers put aproposed program for hurdle gymnastic as an alternative to reach theaim of the lessen,and to know its effect on some of the physical variables and skill preformance the research was done on (117) primary school students society ,and then (40) students of this society was choosen randomly as asample . (20 students as experimental group and 20 students as a control group .
The researchers used anumber of physical exercises and hurdle gymnastic tools . The preparation part of the lessen was done on the experimental group (2 units weeklly for 8 weeks ) while the control group used the usual physical exercises (with out tools ) and with the same period .
The results showed that both 2 groups developed positivly in the physical variables and talent level ,but there was aclear superiority for the proposed program (hurdle gymnastic ) on the usual physical exercises program .
The researchers recommends this type of gymnastic and to use different tools to increase the interest of sharing in the lessen .

Creation in Small Games Designing and its Effect in Thought Creation Growing and Obtaining Training Skills For Sport Education Students Under Application in the University of Mosul

Dhea Al-Khaeat; Jamal Sh Baseem; Akram M. Brzo; Sarmed F. Mohammad

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 56, Pages 256-281
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2011.6138

Abstract
The research aims to:
1. Revealing of the suggested educational programme for small games designed by using the strategy of co-operative learning on obtaining teaching skills, for the students under application for third year students in the college of sport.
2. Revealing of the suggested educational programme for small games designed by using the strategy of co-operation learning on creative thought growing for students under application for third year students in the college of sport.
The tools of the research are as follows:
1. The test of Touranse for creative thought.
2. The test of Rafen for cleverness.
3. Worksheet for obtaining training skills the teaching is done by the researchers.
The Data of the Research:
The research society are students from third year students in the college of sports education in the university (2009-2010) year. And their number are (189) male and female students. While the research data and it contains the following.
1. Expermintal group: it represented by (W) group, and the student number are (16) students and it was being chosen internationally and studied as the suggested educational programme for small games.
2. Control group: it represented by (D) group, and the students number and it was being chosen intentionally and studied in ordinary style.
The Researchers conclude the following:
1. The effectiveness of suggested educational programme designed for small games by using the strategy of co-operation learning in obtaining teaching skills for the students under application for the third year students in the college of sport.
2. The effectiveness of suggested educational programme designed for small games by using the strategy of creative growing for the students, under application for third year students in the college of sport.
3. The effectiveness of co-operation learning and co-operation groups in obtaining teaching skills and creative thought growing for the student under application of third year students of the college of sport.
4. The effectiveness of the application of suggested educational programme, in growing the bases of creative rule for the students under application of third year students in the college of sport education.
The researchers recommended the following:
1. Dependence on the suggested educational programme for small games in teaching application and observation subject in institution and colleges of sport education.
2. Using creative small games including application and observation lessons for colleges and institutions of sport education.
3. Ensuring educational clime which fits the growing of thought in sport education lessons.
4. Dependence on the co-operation training skills which are related with methods of teaching subject in sport education.

The Evaluation of Barbell Trajectory in Accordance with coincident Amended Lines with the Movement of feet in Snatch Lift.

Laith .A. A L- Obayde

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 56, Pages 282-310
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2011.6132

Abstract
Researches had been directed towards the barbell trajectory of the weight as an indicator to the performance and actual expression to the range of weight lifter biomechanical capabilities. Several studies have been conducted on snatch lift; they almost depended on the amendments done by (Roman & Chakirzenove) in treating jump issue among weight lifters predominantly forward and backward. This were studied by using the amount of total jump distance according to the direction of jump in deviation variables (D2-D3-D4-D5-D6), as the distance during the jump has never been passed usually by the weight lifters, the researcher sought to measure the actual distance on each variable and amended the values of weight deviations (D2-D3-D4-D5-D6), the error measurement may be well-deserved to reach to the real values of these deviations.
The current paper aimed to:
1. Identify the values of weight deviations in snatch lift by two methods of (Roman and Shakirzenove) for the amended line of jump issues and the proposed method.
2. Identify the differences in weight deviations in snatch lift between the two methods of (Roman and Shakirzenove) and the proposed one to the amended line for the jump issues.
3. Identify the values and differences in jump distance between the two methods of (Roman & Chakirzenove) and the proposed method.
4. Identify the relative change of weight deviations in snatch lift (Roman & Chakirzenove) and the proposed method of amended line of jump issues.
The researcher proposed that:
1. There are significant differences in values of some weight deviations and the jump distance in snatch lift between two methods of (Roman and Shakirzenove) and the proposed method to the amended line for the jump issues.
2. There is variance differences of relative change in the values of weight deviations in snatch lift between (Roman & Chakirzenove) and the proposed method of amended line of jump issues.
Materials and Methods included:
- Human Resources: Weight lifters training camp participated and Asia Championship Nominated in Uzbekistan Youth.
- Time Resources: 3.4.2010 – 3.11.2011.
- Spatial resources: Youth Center – Al-Kufa (Najajaf).
The descriptive method were accounted in this paper, the sample were (10) weight lifters and participants in country championship, the researcher used technical scientific observations, data analysis and data collection to reach to the variables of weight deviations. In order to achieve the technical scientific observations, video camera (Sony) were used, and fixed ( 4.m distance) on the right hand of weight lifter. The lens of camera were 1m height on the level students, the capture velocity were (25) pix/sec. The trials of payer’s tape recorder were computerized. Data were analyzed technically and statistically: Film Adobe Image Ready (v8)-Adobe Photo shop (v8) – Excel –Word Processing. The data were statistically treated by Mean Value, Deviation Regression, Percentage, Variance Rate, t – test, and SPSS.
The researcher recommended:
1. There are significant differences in values of jump distance values to measure the maximum deviation of weight far from the weight lifter for the difference between the (Roman & Chakirzenove) and the proposed method.
2. The proposed method has been named (Laith Al-Obaidi) to save the intellectual property.

COMPARISON OF EFFECTS OF IONTOPHORESIS AND LOCAL INJECTION OF DEXAMETHASONE PHOSPHATE IN THE TREATMENT OF TENNIS ELBOW

Ahmed A. Ahmed; Raed S. Al-Naemi

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 56, Pages 311-317
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2011.6131

Abstract
Background: Tennis elbow is the commonest example of traumatic tendon disease of the elbow; the causes may be due to the repeated stress, which could come from motions in sport or at work. The patients may complain of ache in the area that is present at rest or at night after activity. Different treatments as iontophoresis, ultra sounds, post isometric contraction relaxation and advice concerning in a proprial use of the hand extensors muscle.
Aim: to evaluate the most beneficial of the previously mentioned treatments in tennis elbow patients.
Patients and Methods: thirty six patients (25males and 11 females), most of them are nonathletic (83.3%), their age range from 22-56 years (mean value=35±110), who were clinically diagnosed as tennis elbow by an orthopedician or physiotherapy seniors. They were referred to the physiotherapy unit at Azadi hospital in Duhok city, Kurdistan region, republic of Iraq. The study period was dated from 1st March 2007 to 1st April 2009; the patients were divided into two groups, group A (18 patients) treated with local Dexamethasone Phosphate injection (4mg), group B (18patients) treated with Dexamethasone Phosphate iontophoresis (4mg), the follow up of the patients was started after the initiation of treatments by one week and monthly continuo for 6 months.
Results: Patients in group A and B showed good response to local Dexamethasone Phosphate injection and Dexamethasone Phosphate iontophoresis 94.4% and 88.9% respectively. While 5.6% and 11.1% of the patients did not respond to the same treatment regime in group A and group B and they need surgical interference.
Conclusions: Iontophoresis is not superior to local injection with Dexamethasone, but it is preferable for their characteristics, as being non-invasive, non traumatic, less painful and safe technique.
Key words: Tennis elbow, Lateral epicondylitis, lateral epicondylalgia, iontophoresis, local injection.