Print ISSN: 1993-9345

Online ISSN: 2664-2514

Volume 16, Issue 55

Volume 16, Issue 55, Summer and Autumn 2010, Page 1-231


The Impact of Repeated Anaerobic Effort in The Anaerobic Capability and the Fatigue Indicator of Basketball, Volleyball and SOCCER Players

Ayad Abdullah; Nabeel Abdullah; Ahmed Qasim

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 55, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6114

The current study aimed at identifying the statistical significances the fatigue indicator among basketball, volleyball and soccer players. The descriptive approach was applied for its appropriateness to the nature of the study. The sample of the study consisted of (15) players representing Mosul University teams of these games for the year (2008-2009); WHOM they were chosen intentionally, (5) players for each game.
The procedures of the research included a pilot study applied on two players; the first a basketball players and the second is a soccer player. Then the anaerobic test of RAST was applied, which consisted of (6)sprint runs passing a distance of (35) meters intervened by rest periods lasted for (10) seconds for each. After ending the test, the results were concluded through applying the following equation:
anaerobic power (watt) = weight x distance2/time3
The fatigue indicator was concluded by applying the following equation:
The fatigue indicator (watt/sec) = the highest power– lowest power)/total time.
The research reached at the following:
1. The repeated anaerobic effort of the three groups of basketball, volleyball and soccer players made an increase in the time of the (6) runs that passed (35) meters distance starting from the first run until the sixth one, and that is because of decline in the duration of anaerobic system and the rise of fatigue indicator resulted from short rest time during recovery period that lasts for (10) seconds.
2. Though there are no significant differences in fatigue indicator among the three groups; the means proved "that the teams were matter of fatigue in this order" volleyball players followed by basketball players then came soccer players, the matter which emphasizes that soccer players are characterized with high level of physical fitness and phosphegeneic lactic aerobic power and their recovery is faster in comparison with basketball and volleyball players.

Evaluating the Level of Psychological fluency Among Iraqi Female Sports Club Players in Volleyball and its Relation with the Level of Achievement

saad jarjees; Firas Ali; Ali Muhammad

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 55, Pages 11-29
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6118

Abstract
The Study Aimed at :
o Evaluating the level of psychological fluency among Iraqi female sports club players in volleyball.
o Expounding the relationship between the level of psychological fluency and level of accomplishment among the study sample.
o Determining the levels and standard degrees for the subject sample in order to measure psychological fluency.
The descriptive method by survey and correlation styles was used for its appropriate to the nature of the study the population of the study included Iraqi female volleyball sport club players whom they participated in the competition ( Iraqi sport clubs competition for ladies 2009) that was held in Dohuk. The number of participating sport clubs were 14 clubs ( ALfatat , Qarquosh, Alqush, Baghdad, Ohan, Alarmany, Fatat Baghdad, Alhusseinia, Aka , Lala , Karah, Amadya, Abrashi, Koya ) amounting to (140) female players.
The researchers used a psychological fluency scale prepared by (Ibrahim 2005) in his thesis for a Master degree in the college of sports education in Baghdad university. It was used as a tool for collecting data.
The scientific procedures to determine the truth and validity were carried out and the data were treated using the statistic tools including (arithmetic mean pattern, simple correlation coefficient, standard deviation, correlation of ranks, t-Test, Spearman Browns formula, Hypothetical Mean , and percentage) .
The researchers reached a number of conclusions:
- The Iraqi female sport club players were characterized with a high level of psychological fluency higher than the hypothetical mean of the scale indicating a positive results .
- A significant positive correlation exists between the level of psychological fluency and the level of achievement among Iraqi female volley ball sport club players .
- Standard scores and levels have been set for Iraqi female volleyball players in the Scale of psychological fluency.

Effect of (Direct & indirect) Mental Training styles Accompanied With the Scheduling Practice of random in Learning & Retention Some Basic Offensive Skills in Basketball

Aryan Hasan; Hamid .M.Bilbas; Mohammed Assmar

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 55, Pages 30-53
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6123

Abstract
The study aims at revealing the following:
1-The effect of (direct &indirect) mental training accompanied with the scheduling of random practice in learning some basic offensive skills in Basketball.
2-the differences in the result of post – test between research groups in learning some basic offensive skills in basketball
3-The differences in the arithmetic means between research groups in the retention test of some basic offensive skills in basketball.
The researchers has applied the empirical method for its suitability with the nature of the research. Researchers subjects consisted of (20) students from the first stage in the College of Physical Education - Salahaddin University, Erbil, for the academic year 2008-2009. They were divided equally into two groups each of which consisting of (10) students. The teaching methods were distributed to the two groups under discussion by lot and as follows:
• The first empirical group has used (indirect) mental training accompanied with the scheduling of random practice.
• The second empirical group has used (direct) mental training accompanied with the scheduling of random practice.
Equivalence between the two groups was attained in the variables of (, intelligence, concentration, athletic mental visualization, motor perception, some physical and motor elements of fitness, and some basic offensive skills in basketball). The researcher has further made use of interviews, questionnaire, testing, and measuring as means for collecting data to attain the researchs aims.
The two educational programs consisted of (24) educational units in as much as of 12 educational units for each group, divided into (6) weeks two educational units for each week. The time of each educational unit is (90) minutes.
The educational programs were applied to the two groups on Wednesdays and Fridays of each week as from 27/01/2009 and for 6 weeks. The application of the educational programs ended on Saturday 05/03/2009.
The researcher has used the following statistical means: arithmetic mean, Standard deviation, T-test for two correlated and uncorrelated arithmetic means,
The researchers has attained a number of conclusions
1- The educational programs that applied mental training (direct and indirect) accompanied with the scheduling of random practice were of uneven affirmative effect on learning some basic offensive skills in Basketball for the First, stage students.
2- equivalence between first and second groups in skills (chest pass , quick pass , one hand pass above the shoulder , dribble change direction ,free pass , side shot ) in post test
3- The second empirical group that applied (direct) mental training accompanied with the scheduling of random practice surpassed the first empirical group in skill test (high dribble)
4- The first empirical group that applied (indirect) mental training accompanied with the scheduling of random practice surpassed the, second empirical group in skill test (shot while bouncing after dribble , lay-up under hand shot and lay up over hand shot .
5- The two empirical groups showed retention preference in the basic offensive skills in basketball in the following order:
- First empirical group: (mental training (indirect) + random practice). In skills (quick pass , one hand pass above the shoulder , free pass , shot while bouncing after dribble , lay-up under hand , shot and lay up over hand shot , side shot )
- second empirical group: (mental training (direct) + random practice).in skills (chest pass , high dribble , dribble with change direction)

Analysis Study of the Mechanical power of the unsuccessful and successful Attempts in Snatch Lift

Saad Al-Dulaimi; Mutasim. Al-Mashhadani

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 55, Pages 54-63
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6120

Abstract
The research aims at :
1. Identifying the values of the mechanical power of the unsuccessful and successful attempts in snatch lift for the research sample .
2. Identifying the differences between the mechanical power of the unsuccessful and successful attempts in snatch lift for the research sample.
3. Drawing the trajectory of the mechanical power of the unsuccessful and successful attempts in snatch lift for the research sample .
The researchers have adopted the descriptive approach on the comparative style for its convenience to the nature of the research .The sample has included (7) advanced weight lifters participating in Iraq clubs championship for the advanced in 2009 . The experiment of the research has been photographed on 26-27/3/2009 in Al-Tamim Hall for weight lifting –Baghdad for all weight lifters participating in Iraq clubs championship for the advanced . The variable of the mechanical power and the related variables which can serve the research have been analyzed . The data have been treated statistically by using SPSS with using ( mathematical mean , standard deviation , percentage law , and t-test for the connected sample ) .
The researchers have concluded the following :-
1. The absence of moral differences for the mechanical power between the unsuccessful and successful attempts for the stages of trajectory of the bar weight in snatch lift for the research sample .
2. Conformity of the trajectory of the mechanical power for the unsuccessful and successful attempts and according to the phases of the trajectory of the bar in snatch lift for the research sample .
3. The increase of mechanical power trajectory has gradated upwards from the first draw phase passing the phase of the knees and till the end of the second phase for the unsuccessful and successful attempts for the stages of weight drawing in snatch lift for the research sample .
4. Decreasing the trajectory of the mechanical power downwards in the phase of flying and falling for the unsuccessful and successful attempts for the phases of the trajectory of the bar in snatch lift for the research sample .

Philosophical indications of administrating the external athletic activity for the teams of Mosul University Colleges

Reyad Ismail; Seaoud Khalil

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 55, Pages 64-83
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6112

Abstract
The research aims at making a real and practical philosophical analysis for the signs of administrating external sport activity for the teams of the colleges of Mosul university in team games throughout clarify heir positive aspects and defining the negative aspects in order to be treated according to the following aims :
1. Recognizing the signs of administrating the external spoert activity in the view of the sport leaderships of the teams of Mosul university colleges in the team games and their players .
2. Comparing the signs of administrating the external sport activity between the sport leaderships and the players of the teams of Mosul university colleges in group games .
3. Comparing the signs of administrating the external sport activity for the sport leaderships and the players of Mosul university colleges in group games .
Both researchers have adopted the descriptive approach in survey method . The sample of the research has included (30) representatives of the administrating and training staffs of the teams of Mosul university colleges in team games , and (400) players . The measure of the signs of administrating the external sport activity has been constructed and applied after observing the scientific conditions in it .
The data have been treated statistically throughout the mathematical mean ,standard deviation , the supposed mean , and t-tests for two independent samples and the anova test and Dinkin test in order to observe the differences .
The researchers have concluded the following :
1. The presence of a unity of believe for all sport leaderships of the teams of Mosul university colleges and the players of those teams for the positive purposes which can be resulted from the participating in the external sport activity among the university colleges .
2. The presence of positive commitment culture for the leaderships of the teams of Mosul university colleges in the training aspects related to their teams which can be reflected on the training culture for the players of those teams .
3. The presence of differences in the cultural and practical believe of the sport spirit among the sport leaderships of the teams of Mosul university colleges and their players in the positive attitude of the players and the negative one of the sport leaderships makes the sport leaderships lose a means of leading effect which represents in the ability as an indirect style more than that related to the direct guidance .
Both researchers have recommended the following :-
1. The necessity of directing the attention of the sport leaderships of the Mosul university teams towards the educational strategy of the sport and emphasizing on the moral income .Thus , the motive experience must support the moral experience with the necessity of encouraging the sport spirit and list it within the standards of evaluation the sport leaderships and players and preparing the suitable prizes for them .
2. The necessity of supporting the recognizing of the sport leadership in Mosul university for the cultural , contemplating , and guiding philosophy which lies in external sport activity for its effect depends on the level of providing human , material , and financial resources and the leaderships that are able to direct those resources to the right direction .

The effect of force exercise differentiated by sbeeds with weights in different intensities on certain basic skill variables of young soccer players

Zuhair Al-Khashab; Mohammad Ali

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 55, Pages 84-102
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6115

The research aims at revealing the following :
• The effect of applying the force exercise characterized by speed with weights on certain basic skills variables of young soccer players of the two experimental groups .
• The denotation of statistical differences in some skillful variables of young soccer players in post-tests of the two groups .
To verify the research objectives , the researcher has established the following hypothesis :
• Significant differences were shown between pre-test and post test in certain basic skills variables of the two experimental groups in favor of post-tests .
• Significant differences were shown between the results of post-tests in certain skillful variables of young soccer players in post-test in favor of the first group which applied the intensity ( 40 % - 60 % ) of the maximum value .
The researcher has adopted the empirical methodology for its convenience with the nature of the research. So, the experiment was performed on sample of young players in Al-Hadba'a club .The sample consisted of (35) players aged between ( 16-19 ) years old .They were intentionally chosen and randomly distributed into two experimental groups , in a number of (10 ) players for each group . (15) players were excluded as (8) of them were dedicated for explorative experiment , (4) of them for not being abound to exercise units ,and (3) were goalkeepers.
Equivalence and consistency between both groups were achieved regarding variables such as ( age , height , weight ) as well as basic skills variables that have been identified by experts and specialists.
The researcher has also adopted the experimental methodology for its convenience with the nature of this research. The research procedures have included designing exercising program in style of force exercises characterized by speed with weights in different intensities which have been applied on both experimental groups. Research procedures have also included certain explorative experiments in order to avoid the problems and difficulties by practicing exercises .In addition to the regulated repetitions and suitable rest intervals for those exercises which suit the sample . Then , the basic skills pre- tests were performed and both groups preformed the exercise program with intensity ( 40% - 60% ) for the first experimental group. The intensities of the second experimental group were ( 60%-80% ) .
Carrying out the exercise program has lasted (8) weeks through two medium rounds, and (4) small rounds in each medium round in amount of (3) exercise units per week and with ranging weights movement (3 : 1) . So , the researcher performed basic skills post-tests on the same procedures and steps followed in the pre-tests .
The researcher has applied the following statistical means : ( arithmetic mean , normative deviation , correlation coefficient ( Person ) , percentage , T-test of correlated samples , and T-test of independent samples ) .
The researcher has concluded the following results :
• The exercise program performed by the first experimental group which applied the intensities ( 40% - 60% ) of the maximum value and the second experimental group which applied the intensities ( 60%-80% ) developed morally to all basic skills ( rolling , dribbling , long pass , hitting the ball with the head ) out of comparing the results of pre-tests and post-tests and were on favor of the post-tests .
• The absence of statistical significant differences in the post-tests of both experimental groups in the basic skills ( rolling , dribbling , long pass , hitting the ball with the head ).
• Weight lifting courses which were accompanied with exercises prepared in the exercise program which is performed by first and second research groups have a positive role in developing muscle power leading to improving all basic skills qualities in pre-test and post-test and in favor of post-test .
The researcher has recommended the following :
• The necessity of applying the two training programs with power differentiated by speed with weights in training soccer players .
• Confirming the applying of repetition in training in developing power differentiated by speed with weights.
• The possibility of applying the two exercise program with intensities( 40 %- 60 % ) and (60 % - 80 % ) of the maximum value in developing the basic skills (rolling , dribbling , long pass , hitting the ball with the head ).

Tooth wear in relation to physiochemical characteristicsamong a group of mixed dentition children

Afrah younis; Dhiya AL-Kayyat

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 55, Pages 103-126
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6117

Abstract
The aim of this study is to see the effect of proposed physical exercises on some functional Variables .
For intermediate school for girls and to know the significance of differences between these variables .
The researchers followed the experimental method on a sample of (90) students , they are divided into (5) groups , one of them is displinary the researcher followed the experimental method with the minimal limit the (CDR) Design .
The procedure of the research includes the pre-test and the post –test of all variable which include (heart rate –Respiratory rate – (30m) run – (150m) run – (600 yards) run . And the traditional program have been implemented for (8) weeks and as follows :
Group (1) : Carried out a program depending on developing phosphagenic system .
Group (2) : Carried out a program depending on two system namely (phosphagenic and lactic acid) .
Group (3) : Carried out a program depending on (O2) system .
Group (4) : Carried out a program depending on all the systems .
Group (5) : Displinary group carried out the traditional program which followed in physical education lessons .
Later on a post – test done for all the variables .
The researches conclude that the combined energy system excelled the other groups in all the variables and she conclude that any proposed energy system lead to improvement of fthe variables depending on that system .
Finally the researches recommend the importance of giving more attention to physical education lessons by using the bases of physical training and encouraging the girls for attending the lessons of physical exercise to gain the best results .

Designing and Constructing tests for measuring certain elements of physical fitness for Futsal players

.Makki Hussein; Rabea Jameel

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 55, Pages 127-153
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6121

Abstract
The problem of the research was identified for the non-availability of special tests to measure the level of special physical fitness elements for Futsal players.
The research has aimed at:
1- Designing and constructing tests to measure physical fitness elements for Futsal players.
2- Establishing standard levels for some tests of special physical fitness elements for Futsal players.
Research population included Futsal players of class A sport clubs in the northern region of the Iraqi tournament. Research sample was chosen intentionally. The sample included sport clubs of Ninevah, Al-Fotowwa, Al-Thawrah, Himreen, Azmar, Serwan and Al-Suleimaneya. The actual number of the sample was (104) players out of (138) players. This number represents (75%) of the research population.
To attain the required information for the research; the two researchers have applied the questionnaire, interview, scientific observation and test as tools for collecting information. A number of explanatory experiments were conducted, as well as the following scientific coefficients:
Reliability by means of re-testing, face validity, subjective veracity, index of reliability, contrast validity and objectivity.
The following statistical tools were used:
- Arithmetic mean, Standard deviation, Person’s simple correlation coefficient, t-Test for independent and equal number of samples, Percentage law, Modified standard degree (6 sigma), Mode , coefficient of skwens and chi-square test.
The most important findings that was reached are:
1- As a result of following the scientific tools of test construction, a number of physical test for Futsal players were obtained, which were characterized by good scientific bases such as; validity , reliability, objectivity and normal distribution, as follows:
- Rotating the legs around Futsal ball.
- Running in different directions around (5) stakes.
- Running against the kinetic signal.
- Letting the feet inside the ladder respectively.
- Running forward, backward and to the sides into the four directions.
- Running forward around (8) stakes.
2- A number of tests were excluded.
3- Particular tables of standard levels of the accepted test were obtained.
4- The adopted tests are normally distributed.
The most important recommendations are:
1- Adopting the tests that have met scientific bases including validity, reliability, objectivity and normal distribution in evaluating the special physical fitness elements of Futsal players.
2- Employing standard tables shown by the researcher in evaluating and assessment players’ level.
3- Making use of these tests in other fields when establishing training program of selecting players for this game.

Anteroposterior dysplasia indicator (APDI) and Overbitedepth indicator (ODI) in a sample of Iraqi adults withdifferent skeletal classes

Ziyad ALsaffar; Khalid daood

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 55, Pages 154-160
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6116

Abstract
- The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of the farness (1m,2m,3m )of server player from the base line on forward wavy serving accuracy in volleyball .
- The researcher hypothesis that there was no significant differences between different farness (1m,2m,3m ) from the base line on the accuracy of forward wavy serve in volleyball .
descriptive method was used for its suitability for the nature of study ,the sample of the study consist of (12) Ninava government team players of volleyball
- the forward wavy serve was applied from the three different area (1m,2m,3m).
- the data were statistically treated by using (F-test ) and the searcher have concluded the following :
- there is no significant difference between different farness (1m,2m,3m ) from the base line in accuracy of forward wave serving in volleyball .

APPLYING THE DIFFERENTIATION FUNCTION IN THE ADMISSION OF FEMALE STUDENTS TO THE COLLEGE OF SPORT EDUCATION FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-2010

Mohammed Salim; Ayad MAhmood; Hiba. Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 55, Pages 161-168
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.162844

The research aims at finding a differentiation function through physical tests for the female students applying to the college of sport education for the academic year 2009-2010and the potentiality of the differentiation function in classifying female students whether to be fitted or not for admission into the college. Researchers hypothesized the differentiation function that has the ability to distinguish and classify the female students applying to the college of sport education for the academic year 2009-2010. Research population has included (28) female students applying for admission to the college of sport education for the academic year 2009-2010. The research sample has been intentionally chosen.  data were  collected and statistically handled by using the following statistical means: arithmetic mean, normative deviation and the analysis of differentiation by applying SPSS application.
In the light of the findings attained, researchers have concluded the following:

By applying the differentiation function, it was possible to find out the importance of physical testes and their order according to the findings attained.
Obtaining a function that has the ability to differentiate female students who are fit or unfitted for admission to the college of sport education.
Obtaining a differentiation equation in physical tests for admission to the college of sport education as follows:

Y = BO + B1Xx1 +B2Xx2 +B3Xx3 +B4Xx4 + B5Xx5
Y = 3,453+0,64 X x1 +0,005 X x2 +0,2 Xx3 +0,389 Xx4   +0,257 Xx5
( BO) coustent , ( B1) Coofiecent of Playar test, (X1) Value of Playar test ,( Y) Predechin Valne.
Researchers recommend the following:

Applying the differentiation function attained by this study in classifying female students applying to the college of sport education.
Carry out similar researches on the remaining tests included in the admission form for male and female students equally and perform a comparative study between both sexes.

Diagnosis of organizational attribution access to the organizational development of Sport Unions in Ninavah

oday Kwaz; Mohamed salim; Zaid ftah

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 55, Pages 169-185
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6119

Abstract
The research aims at:
-Recognizing organizational attribution to introduce organizational development in Sport Unions.
The descriptive approach was used. The sample included (53) administrative members belong to (32) sport unions in Ninavah. The data were analyzed statistically by using t-test for one sample, Pearson correlation coefficient, Guttman formula and Alpha coefficient.
The researchers concluded the following:
1. Unions of Sport have abutments positive development that clarified in definite goals, quality of organizational farms, possess a competence leaders and, assistant way to help it to make conscious change, but it have not more motivation to trend to development .

An analytic comparative study for some kinematical variables of the kinetic trajectory of the weight by using various styles of jerk part

Saad Al-Dulaimy; Alla Al-deen Al- Umran

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 55, Pages 186-206
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6122

Abstract
The research aims at revealing the following :
1. Recognizing the values of some kinematical variables of the kinetic trajectory among the styles of clean and jerk lift with split jerk , the constant jerk ,and the squatting jerk lifts .
2. Comparing the kinetic trajectory form of the weight among the various styles of clean and jerk lift.
Both researchers have adopted the descriptive approach with a comparative style for its convenience with the nature of the research .The sample has consisted of (7) young weight lifters of those who have achieved advanced positions in Iraq championship (Al-Qutur) .The researchers have applied the technical scientific observation ,measurement , analysis , and test as means for collecting data to obtain some kinematical variables of the weight .In order to achieve the technical scientific observation , the researchers have used a video camera located on a distance (8)m far from the left side of the weight lifter . The lens of the camera has been placed on (1.52)m from the stage level . The video camera speed has been (25) pictures / second .
The test has been filmed on 16/12/2003 ( in the close hall / college of physical education / university of Mosul . Each weight lifter has been granted three attempts on each different style of clean establishing on the international law of weight lifter . The best successful attempt has been analyzed which represents (90%) of the weight lifter's power registered in the formal competitions .The researchers have applied the following statistical processors : (the arithmetical mean , the standard deviation , t-test , and percentage law ) .
Conclusions :
The researchers have concluded the following :
1. The presence of difference in the values of some kinematical variables of the three styles of jerk part ..
2. The squatting jerk lift has achieved better height than the style of split jerk. It has been observed the presence of differences in the weight heights in the weight's lowest point in the falling down stage (H2) and the height of the highest point reached by the weight .
3. The power jerk has achieved better heights than squatting jerk lift style . It has been observed the presence of differences in the height of the deepest deviation in the falling down stage H5 and the height of the weight constancy point H6 .
4. split jerk has achieved better heights than the squatting jerk style . It has been observed the presence of the differences in the variables (H5) and H(6) .
5. split jerk has achieved better heights than the power jerk . It has been observed the presence of differences in the variables (H5) and (H6) .

The effect of using two styles of conditional playing in the limited area of the court on a number of physical and skillful variables for young soccer players

Idham Albeejwani

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 55, Pages 207-231
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6111

Abstract
The research has aimed at revealing the following:
1. The effect of two touches- playing style on a certain number of physical and skillful variables.
2. The effect of three touches- playing style on a certain number of physical and skillful variables.
3. The statistically significant differences between both techniques of playing on a certain number of physical and skillful variables.
4. The differences between the change ratio between both techniques of playing on a certain number of physical and skillful variables.
The experimental methodology has been employed for its convenience with the nature of the research. The research population has been chosen intentionally and consisted of (33) players from Ninevah football club aged (16-19) for the football season (2009-2010). The research sample has been consisted of (24) players divided into two experimental groups in the amount of (12) players for each group. The percentage of the research sample has reached (72.72%) from the total population of the research after excluding (9) players. Equivalence between the two groups of the research has been achieved regarding the variables of (age, height and weight) and a certain number of physical variables ( vertical explosive power of the legs, agility, maximum transitional speed, muscular power of the legs, speed endurance, legs' strength endurance) and certain skillful variables (short pass, medium pass, calm down, near scoring). The experimental design referred to as ' the randomly chosen equivalent groups of vigorous controlled with pre and post test).
As for the main steps of the research, the first step was performing an interview with some specialists to identify the number of touches that can be followed inside the limited area of the court as well as the physical and skillful variables that serve the aims of the research. While the second step was rationalizing the proper exercises of the research through identifying the limited area, the number of players and gradation possibility of the difficulty of exercises within a single medium cycle. The third step was establishing a training course and submitting it to some specialists for necessary modifications. Three pilot studies were conducted, the first has aimed at realizing the possibility of accomplishing physical and skilful tests and avoiding mistakes and obstacles during execution. The second experiment has aimed at conducting the selected drills within the limited areas and players formations within them and the intensity control applied. The third experiment has aimed at conducting a full training unit by both playing techniques (the research sample).
Pre physical and skillful tests have been conducted within two successive days followed by a training course of two medium sessions with a load movement undulation of (3:1) in an amount of eight weekly sessions each short session has included three training units. Therefore, (24) training units were accomplished throughout the course. Post physical and skilful tests were conducted by following the same procedures followed in accomplishing the pre tests. The following statistical treatments were applied to deduce the findings: (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, t-test of the dependant and correlated samples, percentage and progression percentage).
The researcher has attained a number of conclusions, the most important of which were as follows:
1. The two touches- playing technique has achieved a significant progress in all the physical and skillful attributes and the basic skills as well at comparing the findings of the pre and the post physical and skillful tests in favor of the post tests.
2. The three touches- playing technique has achieved a significant progress in all the physical and skillful attributes and the basic skills as well at comparing the findings of the pre and the post physical and skillful tests in favor of the post tests.
3. No significant differences regarding the physical attributes and the basic skills at comparing the findings of the post physical and skillful tests between both techniques of playing.
4. Two touches playing technique has achieved a good difference regarding the change percentage of the two skills of the short pass and the near scoring at taking differences in the arithmetic means between both techniques of playing. While the three touches playing technique has achieved a good difference in the change percentage of the calm down skill at taking the differences in the pre and post arithmetic means between both techniques of playing.
The most important recommendations were as follows:
1. Training courses based on correct scientific bases should be applied in order to develop both the physical and the skillful aspects.
2. The coaches of the game should be asserted upon to concentrate on the drills and exercises that are closer to the atmosphere of contests and matches for their positive effect on enhancing and developing the physical and skillful aspects.
3. Coaches of football games should be confirmed upon to have the exercise times more similar to the main working times of the match in order that the coach be able to develop and improve the operational power system needed by the players and that serve in achieving football physical and skillful tasks.