Print ISSN: 1993-9345

Online ISSN: 2664-2514

Volume 16, Issue 53

Volume 16, Issue 53, Winter and Spring 2010, Page 1-233


The effect of Using Reciprocal Style in Acquiring the skill of shooting from stationary and Falling position in Handball and Utilizing Academic learning Time

Farhad K. Mawlood; Dr. Hamid M. Bilbas

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 53, Pages 1-28
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6094

ABSTRACT
The Study aims at:
Identifying the effect of using reciprocal style in:
- Acquiring Shooting from stationery and Falling position in Handball
- Utilizing Academic learning Time
The researchers used the experimental method according to the nature of the research. The sample of the research consisted to of (42) sophomore students at the physical institute in Erbil. The sample was divided into two groups each group contains (14) students. The first experimental group has learned according to reciprocal style but the controlled group has learned according to command style. The equivalence for the groups was carried out in (age, length, and mass) and some aspects of the physical fitness related of the study. The researchers used Anderson system to observe and analyze the student's behaviore during class. The program lasted for (4) weeks specifying one educational unit for each style and the time specified for each unit were 90 minutes. It started from 26 3 2008 to 16 4 2008. After that tests were done.
After analyzing the results by means of statistics, the researchers have presented the following conclusions:
- The reciprocal and command styles have clear effect on learning students of sport institute shooting from stationary and falling postion in handball.
- The two groups in acquiring shooting from spot was equivalent in post - tests.
- The reciprocal style was better than command style in shooting from falling position.
- The reciprocal style has achieved high Percentage in saving time for the Academic Learning of shooting from stability and falling in handball.
- Increasing the percentage of practicing activity with reciprocal style as compared with command style.

Designing and Constructing Tests to measuring Some offensive skill-tests

A. Shihab Ahmmed; Maki .M. Hussein Al-Rawi

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 53, Pages 29-55
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6086

ABSTRACT
As Futsal is a new sport and through reviewing the literature written about the game and- as far as the researcher knows- no tests for measuring futsal basic skills are available. Thus; the research problem has emerged to establish a number of tests to measure certain skills of futsal game.
Research objective
- Establishing a number of tests to measure certain basic skills for Futsal players.
The researcher has tackled –within the theoretical framework- the establishment of basic skill tests in futsal as well as discussing and displaying previous studies.
Within the research measures; the researcher has followed the survey descriptive methodology for its convenience with the nature of the research problem. This methodology-by such a technique- is considered one of those fact-finding methods that induce the required results for solving problems in a certain society.
Research population has included Futsal first-class players in the Iraqi tournament North region and the subjects have been chosen intentionally including the following clubs: Ninevah ,Alfutwa, Himreen, Suleimaniya, Azmar& Sirwan.
Actual number of subjects was (116) out of (149) representing (%77) of the research population, other players were excluded for reasons such as injury, absence and goalkeepers.
In order to attain the required data ; the researcher has applied several tools such as content analysis to determine Futsal basic skills. Skills demonstrated by analysis are: Shooting, dribbling, Passing, Stopping, corner Kick, side Kick, distopping, Dodging as well as other means for collecting data such as tests, questionnaire, interviews and scientific observation.
The researcher has employed the following statistical tools:
arithmetic mean
standard deviation
Person’s simple correlation coefficient
t-Test for independent samples
Percentage
Modified T-scores
Chi-square test (goodness of fit)
The most prominent results attained by the researcher are as follows:
1. Tests were accepted as having met the scientific bases for good test, including validity reliability and objectivity.
- Passing the ball with the foot from dribbling for 30 sec.
- Shooting from movement on the overlapped divisions drawn inside the goal.
- Shooting from stable balls on six divisions.
- Shooting from movement.
- Shooting from movement for a ball coming from the controlling leg side.
- Shooting from movement for a ball coming from the back.
- Dribbling the ball around (5) stakes according to Barrow method.
- Dribbling the ball around (6) stakes with different dimensions back & forth.
- Side shoots on a curved goal
- Passing a ground ball by the foot from dribbling on a divided bench.
- Passing the ball by foot on the overlapped circles drawn on the wall from stable balls.
- Stifling ground ball by the feet from the movement position, then passing it towards the goals on both sides.
2. Unaccepted tests for obtaining less than %75 of specialists’ approval.
- Side shoots on 3 goals
- Dribbling the ball around 8 stakes with different dimensions back & forth.
- Dribbling the ball around an equilateral triangle.
- Scoring from stable balls
- Dribbling the ball
- Dribbling the ball around (9) stakes.
5. Approved test are distributed normally.
The research has presented a number of recommendations; the most important of which are as follows:
1. Adopting tests that meet the scientific bases include validity, invariability, and objectivity.
2. Circulating tests’ findings upon sport clubs that benefits from the research.
3. Performing similar researches on other topics.
4. Performing similar researches on other geographical areas.

THE EFFECT OF AN AEROBIC STRESS ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABLES FOR BOTH GENDERS

Mohammed. M. Mohammed; Rayan Al Hasso

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 53, Pages 56-73
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6093

ABSTRACT
The study of physiological implications of pupils body organs and systems during rest and effort is one of the important duties which should be recognized to know the extent of training load elements correspondence with the pupils abilities on the one hand and the evaluation of training curricula on the other, and knowing the differences between the two genders of this age category under study. The present study aimed to:
1- Discover the values of some physiological variables during rest of males and females pupils aged (11 - 12 ) years.
2- Discover the differences between pre- and post measurements in the values of physiological variables of both males and females pupils aged ( 11 – 12 ) years.
3- Discover the pre- and post measurements in the values of physiological variables of both males and females.
4- Discover the differences between males and females in the values of absolute changes of physiological variables.
To verify the hypotheses of the research, the researcher used the experimental method because it suits the research sample . The sample was intentionally chosen and included two groups. The first group consisted of 15 pupils from fifth and sixth primary class in Abi-Thar Al-Ghafari school for boys. The second group consisted of 15 pupils from Abi-Thar Al-Ghafari school for girls in Mosul city center. The researcher used tests and measurements to collect data which included: testing an aerobic effort, physical measurement, measurement of some physiological variables of heart and core temperature.
The test was conducted within two separate days. In the first day, an aerobic effort test was conducted for girls, after two days , an aerobic effort test was carried out for boys.
The researcher used the following statistical means: Media, Standard Deviation, T-test for Non-coefficient media, Absolute change equation, and Percentage change equation.
In the light of results and discussion , some conclusions were drawn out:
1- The aerobic effort had a clear influence on the heart physiological variables during rest time.
2- The two samples showed a clear influence on the value of absolute change of heart rate variables, however it was more obvious in females.
3- Generally, there were no significant differences in the value of absolute changes of other physiological variables under study.

Design Certain Test Batteries of Certain Athletic Activities for the Students of the First Academic Year in College Of Physical Education,

Waleed K. Al-Hamdani; Ethar A. Ghazal; Abdul Kareem K. Al-Jawadi

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 53, Pages 74-95
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6087

ABSTRACT

The ability to select individuals fit for sport activities is fulfilled conducting some tests to know the level of performances of these individuals. This study aims at reaching the best skill tests of some teams games in order to get the best candidates at the college of physical education it aims at:
_ Building test batteries of basketball , volleyball and soccer for the student of the first academic year in college of physical education .
The theoretical part implied the importance of tests, their classification the scientific bases of a good test , test batteries , method of athletic skills measurement , factorial Analysis , validity of athletic skills test , and factors influencing the validity of tests .
The description approach has been applied, Explorative tests have been conducted to get the means standard deviations, and the validity, reliability and objective of each test of the 36 teats applied on the sample of this research which consisted 72 first year student at the college of physical education. Theses tests have been divided in to three games: 14 tests for basketball, 9 for volleyball, 13 for football. Three factorial analysis have been conducted for each game. Statistical means have been used.
The factorial analysis for each game have been concluded some factors: 6 for basketball, 2 for volleyball, and 5 for football.

Effect of athletic competition in ball game of five players(Futsal) in bleeding and clotting time.

Nashwan abdalla alnemee

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 53, Pages 96-103
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6095

The effect of athletic competition in ball game of five players(Futsal) in bleeding and clotting time was studied on(10) ten players of ball game of five players from the sport college - university of mosul , their mean Ages , Weights ,and Heights (23) SD + (2.4), (68.3) SD + (4.39), (173) SD + (2.42) respectively. The procedures of the research included Measuring of bleeding and clotting time before and after competition. This study concluded that athletic competition in ball game of five players reduce the bleeding and clotting time.

Comparison study in Intense cleverness for Varsity Players of North Area Universities in Basketball.

Sabah. J. Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 53, Pages 104-118
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6096

ABSTRACT
The paper aims are as follows :
- Measuring the intense cleverness for Varsity players of north area Universities in basketball.
- Knowing the differences in intense cleverness for electros players of north area Universities in basketball as play centre (play maker, ward player, pivot player).
- Knowing the differences in intense cleverness for Varsity players of north area Universities in basketball between two centres (the winner in the first mattress, who obtain the last mattress)
The paper hypothesis are as follows :
- There are not difference that home statistical indication in intense cleverness for Varsity players for north area Universities in basketball as play centre (play maker, ward player, pivot player).
- There aren’t differences that have statistical indication in intense cleverness for Varsity players of north area Universities in basketball between the last and first mattress.
The researcher used descriptive method which fits the nature of the paper, and applied the scale on the sample (which) chosen in intentional way its foundation (60) players from north area Universities electors in basketball and they are all from University of (Mosul, Ambar, Tekrit, klSalah-Al-Deen, and Jihan) in fact (12) players from each University since (2008-2009) in gym of Akd club from 11/3/2009 to 15/3/2009.
The following statistical means are used : (mathematical, mathematical medium, standard deviation, anova one way direction, Denkin range multiple T-test for one sample, T-test for two independent samples).
The researcher reaches number of important conclusions the most important ones are :
- The north area Universities varsity delights with high level of intense cleverness.
In the sight of these conclusions the researcher reaches to the number of recommendations are of them is supporting intense cleverness and growing it through training programs for ward, and pivot players for north area Universities electors in basketball.

Effect of using inclusion and guided-discovery styles in learning of over hand top spin serve and for arm pass in volleyball

laith mohamad

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 53, Pages 119-136
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6089

The research aims at discovering the followings:
1. The effect of using inclusion and guided-discovery style in learning some volleyball skills.
2. The differences among the two styles in learning some volleyball skill .
To verify the aims of research, the researcher supposes the followings:
3. The inclusion and, guided-discovery styles achieve learning of some volleyball skills in different levels.
4. There are no statistical differences among the results of learning some skills for the two styles. The researcher used experimental method for its suitability to the nature of research. The research was applied upon pupils of 4th classes of Qarakosh preparatory School for boys in Hamdaniya District for the academic year 2007-2008. Their total was (48). They had been divided into three groups (16) for each group.The researcher applied special style of teaching as follows:
• The first experimental group: inclusion style.
• The second experimental group: guided-Discovery style.
• The control groupe : command style
The equivalence among groups has been achieved in the variables of age, height and weight and some elements of physical fitness which affect in learning some volleyball skills. The researchers concentrated on experimental design which is called pre-post test random equilavant control groups. Two instructional programs in volleyball have been prepared special for skills (overhand top spin serve and forearm pass) in accordance with inclusion and guided-discovery styles. The program fulfillment lasted for (4) weeks with two instructional units per a week.This program have been fulfilled during the period 3-11-2007 till 30-12-2007After collecting data and handling them statistically by using means, standard deviation, multiple-correlation coefficient, t-test, Anove one away in one direction and the L.S.D test.We have reached the following conclusions
The inclusion style is better than the two other styles when we use it in learning the skills of (over hand top spin serve, and forearm pass).
The guided-discovery style is better than traditional (commanding) style when we use it in learning the skills of (top spin serve and forearm pass).
The researcher has recommended the following:
Using inclusion style through learning volleyball skills (over hand top spin serve and forearm pass).
Using guided-discovery style in learning the skills of (over hand top spin serve and forearm pass) and to be more preferable than commanding style.

The study of prevalence and types of skin diseases among athlets in Mosul sport clubs

Gada abd jabbar; Ammar abdulrahman

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 53, Pages 137-149
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6097

ABSTRACT

The research objectives is to determined the prevalence and types of skin diseases among athlets in Mosul sport clubs and to determined The ages , educational level and hygiene care of skin practiced by the athlets . skin diseases form a problem in front of training and competition and from this came the importance of the research .
The researchers put a hypotheses that there is a large number of skin diseases among athlets and there is little medical . we used community – based survey and we conclude that skin diseases was very prevalent among athlets and there is clear relation ship between these diseases and the age and the educational level , the high percentage was in young ages with low educational level and also between the athlets with low skin hygiene .

The Effection of Teaching by Cooperative Learning Method in reducing the Anxiety Level in Learning the tennis Transmission Skill in Volleyball

Hazim Ahmad Matrood

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 53, Pages 150-167
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6088

Aims of this research :
- Check up the influence of cooperative learning in reducing the anxiety level of high school female students, in volleyball.
- Checkup the activity of using cooperative learning method in learning the tennis transmission skill.
The researchers supposed the following :
- There are many abstract content differences between the tow groups of research (experimental and control) about the activity of cooperative learning in reducing the anxiety level of high school female students.
- There are many abstract content differences between the tow groups of research about the activity of teaching by use the cooperative method in learning tennis transmission skill.
The researchers used the experimental method for its suitability to the research complexion, the specimen consisted of female students from tow groups of fifth class that had been choosen randomly from three groups (16 students from each groups), after elimination some of them because the were unlikeness with the others.
This specimen formed a good rate of(% 36.78) per cent form the total basic research. The parity between the groups was made in variable of ( ago, length, cluster, and some elements of physical fitness and motor skills) affecting in learning the tennis transmission skill that opposite the top.
The researchers depended on the experimental design which called ((the design of randomly checkup equivalent groups that have following and anteriority notation)).
This curriculum had been done in Saturday 28/march/ 2009 , in (4) weeks at the rate of (6) education units, (45) minute for each one after collection and evacuation, the data had been processed statically by using ( arithmetic mean, standard deviation, percent, and (T) test for two equal specimens.
Conclusion :
The researchers conctuded the following :-
-The cooperative learning is an active method for teaching the female students the transmission skill technically.
- The progress of the cooperative learning method on the classical one, in learning the tennis transmission skill .
The researcher recommended the following :
1. Stress on using the cooperative learning method to learn skills of volleyball.
2. Making similar studies of other skills in volleyball.

Constructing an optimism scale for the students of physical education college in the University of Mosul and it is relation with academic achievement

Ali Hussein Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 53, Pages 168-185
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6091

ABSTRACT
Aims of study:
Constructing an optimism scale for the students of physical education college in the University of Mosul.
Evaluating the level of optimism of the students of physical education college in the University of Mosul.
Setting standard levels for the sample of study in the optimism scale.
Recognizing the relation between the level of optimism and the average of academic achievements of the students of physical education in the University of Mosul.
The researcher used the descriptive approach by survey and correlation style. The society of study included (773) students from the college of physical education in University of Mosul (2008-2009). The essential sample of study included (300) students chosen randomly from the society of study. The sample of study was divided into two divisions: sample of structure which included (180) students, i.e., (60%), chosen randomly from the essential sample of study, and sample of application which included (120) students, i.e., (40%), chosen randomly from the essential sample of study. The instrument of study included the scale of optimism that the research Constructed by taking scientific measures and steps in Constructed the scales. The steps and measures included validity of experts, statistical analysis of items by ways of (extreme groups and internal consistency). Scale stability has been verified by using the way of splet halves single and dual items manner, and average of academic achievement. Also, the researcher used the following statistical analysis: arithmetic mean, standard deviation, Carl Person Factor Equation, factor of simple correlation, T-test, Spearman- Brown Equation, assumption average of scale and percentage.
Conclusions:
- Efficiency of Constructed scale for evaluating the level of optimism for the students of college of physical education in the university of Mosul.
- Students of college of physical education in the university of Mosul, in general, have a level of optimism higher than assumption average of scale. This refers that they have good level of optimism which affect positively on their consistence and academic achievement, namely, they are enthusiastic for success and advancement in the study in the university as well as in their life (in general).
- standard levels have been set for the sample of study in the optimism scale.
- There positive significant correlations between the level of optimism and the average of academic achievement of the students of physical education college in the university of Mosul.

The Effect of the consecutive relaxation's program on the of the Examinations anxiety and the degree of the scientific obtaining in gymnastic subject

Thamer Thannoon; Okla .s.alhory

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 53, Pages 186-209
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6090

ABSTRACT

The research aimed at :
1- set up a training program of the consecutives relaxation to the students
of the third class in gymnastic subject in the department of basic education in mosul university .
2- revelation of the consecutive relaxation program's effect on the examinations anxiety in gymnastic subject to the student's of the department of physical education in college of basic education in mosul university .
3- revelation of the consecutive relaxation program's effect on the degree of the practical obtaining in gymnastic subject to the studentes of the department of physical education in college of basic education in mosul university .
The experimental method has been used because it was compatible with the nature of the research , the community of the research included the students of the third –class in department of physical education in college of basic education in mosul university for the year (2008-2009) , their number are (43) students , the sample of research was the community research itself , their number are (28) students after elimination of Dilot study and reliability, sample of the research was divided in to two groups ( experimental group their number are (14) students at the rate (%33) were selected randomly from the community of the research and controlling group their number are (14) students at the same rate of the experimental group of the community research , and the scale of examinations concern was the base made by ( al- janabi – 2008 ) as atool of the research after the application of the scientific ways on it , for both were done it validity and reliability , and the tow research determined the period of the consecutive relaxation program in (8 weeks) in two training unites group in week , the period of the each training unit is (15) mints , and the statistical ways were used represented in ( arithmetic mean , standard deviation ,spearman-brown formula, t-test for two independent sample for the differences among the groups and alfa for reliability .
The researchers arrived at the following conclusions :
1- the training program of the consecutive relaxation made by the researcher work on reduce the level of practical examination concern for the experimental group and in morale differences between the two test
( before and after ) .
2- the controlling and experimental group were equal in practical examinations concern level before giving the experimental variable to the experimental group . 3- the examinations anxiety for the controlling group remain the same and didn’t reduce in the test after that when comparing with the previous test .
4- the superiority of the experimental group on the controlling group in the grade of the final scientific obtaining in gymnastic subject .

" Education and sport education at Ibn- Badies"

Alaa .a.hussein; Saud .a.muhsen

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 53, Pages 210-218
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6085

ABSTRACT
This paper aims to know the following:
AL- sheik Ibn- Badies and his philosophic opinion and his ides in education, human being , science, and knowledge. Also, it aims to know physical education at Ibn-Badies.
The researchers conclude that:
Al- sheik Ibn-Badies depends on actual philosophy in his philosophy and he pays a big attention to human being and makes him axis to his educational plan and his aims.
Also, he emphasizes on the relation between mind and body and he depends on Islamic education resources in that.
The researchers recommend the following:
Make introduction to Ibn- Badies character and declarating his active role in education and physical education through making seminars and writing essays, and making other researcher a bout Ibn- Badies and declarating his role in other domains as politics and journalism

Distinctive Physical and skill properties and body measurement of badminton players

Ethar .A. Ghazal

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 53, Pages 219-233
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6092

The research aimed to determining to the differentiation function for some of the differentiated physical and skill variables and physical measures for badminton players, in addition to determining the predicting and categorizing formulas for the subject sample according to the function of differentiation in physical , skill and physical measures characteristics, the researchers hypothesized that the differentiation exists between players of badminton (discrimination and none discrimination) in some physical and skill characteristics and physical measures .also using discrimination function for selecting, predicting and categorizing the researchers used the descriptive method. The population sample was (48) players divided into two groups,(24) players for each group Depending on the player's results in skill tests, the researchers used the physical, skill tests and physical measures to reach the research data. After completion of tests and measures the research variables were statistically analyzed. The conclusions of research were as following.
1- extraction four skill variables ( smashing hit , high long serve , low serve and frontal hit ) as a differentiation function.
2- concluded the latest categorization for badminton players according to the functions of discrimination concluded categorization.
3- concluded the formula predicting according to the functions of discrimination concluded categorization.