Print ISSN: 1993-9345

Online ISSN: 2664-2514

Volume 16, Issue 54

Volume 16, Issue 54, Summer and Autumn 2010, Page 1-266


The Effect Of Transfer Of Learning For All Types Of Pass Skill In The Near And Far Shooting In Football

Nawfel. F. Rashid

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 54, Pages 1-29
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6007

ABSTRACT
-The aims of the study was the following :
1-To explore The effect of transfer of learning for all types of pass skill in the
near and far shooting in football
2-To explore differences in the subsequent test between two group for The effect of transfer of learning for all types of pass skill in the near and far shooting in football
- The researcher hypothesizes the following :
1- There were no differences of significant nature between the results of the pre and subsequent tests for research two group
2- There are no significant differences between the two practice and standard groups in the near and far shooting skill in the subsequent test.
- The researcher has used the trail procedure due to its appropriateness and the nature of the research problem. Accordingly, the first(that is trial) group learns the skill of the types of the pass, as the first task, over(6) training sessions, the near and far shooting skill, as second task, over another (6) training sessions. The standard group, on other hand, learns something which has no relationship with the near or far shooting skill, as the as the first task, over(6) training sessions, followed by learning the near and far shooting skill, as second task, over (6) training sessions also, and the test will be in the second task (near and far shooting skill).
- The sample of the research is represented by the first-year students of the college of sport education /university of Mosul for the year 2008-2009 they are (42) students divided into two groups of (21) students each. The equality and homogeneity processes have been carried out between the two groups in the following growth variables (weight, age and tallness) and some elements of physical and motor fitness of the football players, in addition to conducting the equality in some basic skill in football.
- The following statistic means(arithmetical mean, standard deviation , and T-test) will be used, as well as using equations of the learning effect including ( absolute transition degree, transition degree by means of regulation, transition degree by means of the maximum possibility, and transition degree by means of the balanced measurement).
- The researcher concluded the following :
1- There are significant differences between the two experimental and standard groups .The experimental group manifested better result in making use of the exercises of the first task to facilitate the second task.
2- The experimental group achieved standard of transition than the standard groups concerning the degrees and percentages of transfer of the effect of learning ( the absolute, commitment , ultimate probability and balanced analogy).

Effect of using mental training accompanied with the random scheduling practice in developing some basic skills for goal keepers in football

Mohammed Assmar

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 54, Pages 30-52
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6017

The research has aimed at revealing the following .
1-The effect of using mental training accompanied with the random scheduling practice In developing some basic skills for goal keepers in football.
2- The effect of traditional style in sport clubs in developing some basic skills for goal keepers in football
3- The differences of post-test between the two groups under discussion in some basic skills for goal keepers in football.
- Experiential method was used for its suitability to the nature of the study . sample of the study consisted of (16) goal keepers from Ninevah sport clubs for the year(2006–2007 ),which divided randomly by (Lot) into two equal groups in as much as (8) goal keepers for each group, one of which was empirical group and the other was control group .
- Equivalence between the two groups was attained regarding the variables of the research such as (age, height, mass, intelligence, concentration, athletic, mental visualization, some physical of motor elements, some skills for goal keepers in football).the researchers has used(interviews, questionnaire, test and Measurement) For Collecting Data . The Researchers also Put Two Learning programs , one of them for the experimental group by mental training style and the other for the control group by traditional style in sport clubs , for a Period of(8) weeks in the amount of two learning units per a week for each group , each unit lasts for (90) minutes .
- The researchers has used the following statistical means, arithmetic mean , standard deviation , and (T) test for paired and unpaired samples .
- The researchers has attained the following conclusions:
1- The mental training program accompanied with the random scheduling practice and traditional style in sport clubs have shown a positive effective in developing some basic skills for goal keepers in football.
2-Empirical group was superior the control group in all skill tests for goal keepers in football

The Adminitrative system for general administray in sport education since 1919 to 1998

Saud Abdul Muhsen

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 54, Pages 53-66
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6016

ABSTRACT
The introduction and the importance of this paper deal with education, and its importance in experience formation and introducing them. Also it involves with education system considering it as representation of human ideas and his wishes. The importance of the paper implicit that most of thinkers see that surmising the principles even if it doesn't mean exactly admistration of rules. So, it doesn't have any disadvantages from it and the implicitly of research importance in this period, in levels of civilized rise for sport movement all over the world, especially in Olympic cycles and world cup championship and normal meetings. According to Iraq, this period was considered from highlight sport movement evolution, which reach to organized help that achieved sport aims generally.
Theoretical frame deals with combining principles administration, and the resealts which recognized it. Also it involves the administary system, and it deals with administary subject and administration, and administary responsibilities administary work factors, and admistary formation, and completing behaviours of professionals. Also it includes individual behaviour in administration levels. The third itemize deals with administary system evolutions for general physical education, and departments which related to it. And general mangers who alterates on manging it. And, it also discusses the changing of administary frame of administration as modernization, and deleting of some administration. Where frame change made in this period (7) items. This chapter also involves the ending and analysis from the researcher point of view.
Conclusions and Recommendations:
According to conclusions most prominent ones are as follows:
1- No quality evolution occur on sport political eara in Iraq in this period.
2- Sport leaders who work in this period, can not apprehend to administration features, that negatively reflexed on sport performance.
3- Youth energy cannot directing for interesting of movement in good way, reflecting internationalize interest for their youth and improving their proficiency.
The Recommendation includes:
1- Composing professional form which studies sport education system, and rises with its fact.
2- Formation of professional committees to diagnoize imperfection, and weak points in sport administaty frame and the suitable treatment state for it.
3- Choosing professional sport leadership, who practice their work according to correct practical methods. And supporting required experience and ablities to save sport movement.
The Research, also includes summery in both Arabic and English languages, finally it contains resources and consultative

The Impact Of Using special Exercises To Develop Static And Dynamic Balance And The Level Of Skill Performance On The Balance Beam

Nagham ayad Mohammad; kareem Jassim; an Abdu

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 54, Pages 67-99
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6011

ABSTRACT
The impact of using special exercises to develop static balance on the balance beam.
1- The impact of using special exercises to develop dynamic balance on the balance beam.
2- The impact of using special exercises to develop the level of skill performance on the balance beam.
3- The significance of statistical differences between the two posttests for both the experimental and control groups in the characteristics of static and dynamic balance on the balance beam for females.
4- The significance of statistical differences between the two posttests for both the experimental and control groups in the characteristics of the level of skill performance on the balance beam for females.
The researches used the experimental method appropriate with the nature of the study on a sample of 2nd grade female students in the college of education for girls . The sample consisted of ( 20 ) females divided into an experimental and a control group each with (10) female student . The method of the study included a pretest for balance and level of skill performance followed by the training course during an (8) week period using (3) training units per week and a fluctuation load (3:1). The posttest was carried out in the same procedure of the pretest . Conclusions and recommendations :
Conclusions:
1- The training course for static and dynamic balance exercises achieved a significant development in all the tests concerning unstable balance and balance on the instep , walking o the beam , forward rolling on the beam for the experimental group .
2- Overcome the training course for static and dynamic balance exercise, when comparing between the tow post tests for both experimental and control groups in benefit for post test of experi- mental groups.
Recommendations :
1- Adopting various exercises for the balance characteristic as it is affective in developing both static and dynamic balance .
2- Emphasize on using repetitive training by the trainers as it is affective in developing both static and dynamic balance.

Mental skills And Its relationship With planning thinking for Football Players

Moayed A.Hasso

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 54, Pages 100-122
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6018

ABSTRACT
Study aims to know:
-The Mental skills and planning Thinking for Football Players
-The relationship between Mental skills and planning Thinking for Football Players .
The sample of the study was consisted of (54)players who play in Dohok
،Pearis and Karkok clubs in games of Football، the data collected through Mental skills scales for Athletes and planning Thinking scales for Football Players.
The study revealed the following results:
- The Football Players who play in First Class they have a good level of Mental skills and planning Thinking .
- There are harmony levels between Mental skills and planning Thinking for Football Players .
The researcher recommends the following:
- Emphasizing In the development of planning Thinking for Football Players.
- Emphasizing In the development of all the Mental skills for Football Players.

The effect of using some assisting and learning instruments in learning and retention the passing and shooting skills in football

Nawfel. F. Rashid

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 54, Pages 123-158
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6014

ABSTRACT
-The aims of the study was the following :-
To explore The effect of using some assisting , learning instruments and traditional style in learning passing and shooting skill in football
Comparing between The effect of using some assisting , learning instruments and traditional style on learning passing and shooting skills in football in the subsequent test
Comparing between The effect of using some assisting , learning instruments and traditional style on retention with passing and shooting skill in football
- The researcher has used the experimental method to its appropriateness and the nature of the research problem. Accordingly, the first experimental group used the assisting instruments in lesson as well as explain motor task. the second experimental group used in lesson learning instruments (skill image and movie image(video) ) as well as explain motor task while the standard group did not used neither the assisting instruments nor learning instruments in lesson but they only used the explaining and live sample by lecturer.
- The sample of the research is represented by the first-year students of the college of sport education / university of Mosul for the year 2009-2010 they are (54) students divided into three groups of (18) students each. The equality and homogeneity processes have been carried out between the groups in the following growth variables (mass, age and length) and some elements of physical and motor fitness of the football players, in addition to conducting the equality in passing (medial and short) and shooting (near and far( skill in football.
- The following statistical means(arithmetical mean, standard deviation , and T-test ,percentage , one-away anova, Duncan test , L.S.R , retention rate )
The researcher concluded the following :-
The first experimental group that used (the assisting instruments in lesson ) was better than The second experimental group and control group in learning passing and shooting skills.
The first experimental group that used (the assisting instruments in lesson ) was better in retention test than The second experimental group and control group.

The abuse of Durabolin hormone among body building athletes in Ninava Governate center

Ammar abdulrahman Ali

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 54, Pages 159-168
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6015

ABSTRACT
Anabolic steroids forms a new danger threatened athletes . it is used greatly without medical need to gain muscle mass rapidly, this has led to many harmful effects appeared between them.This research aim to find out the age distribution , the period of use ,How and by whom they take it and the side effects which appeared on them. the researcher examine150 body builders athletes who used the durabolin hormone and the results showed that the ages (21 – 25 ) years form the highest percentage using this hormone and they take it through the coach usually . the highest period of using the hormone was 2 – 3 years, many side effects appeared between them including most of the body's systems .

The effect of using the constructional learning model and Gagne deductive model in obtaining and maintaining certain sport education teaching methods' concepts

Dhiya Alkhayat; Jamal Shukri Baseem

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 54, Pages 169-187
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6010

ABSTRACT
The research aimed at revealing the effect of using the constructional learning model and Gagne deductive model in obtaining and maintaining certain sport education teaching methods' concepts.
The researchers used the experimental methodology for its convenience with the research nature. The research sample consisted of (50) students of the 3rd. year, college of sport education for the academic year (2007-2008) randomly distributed into two experimental groups. The first group consisted of (30) students taught by constructional learning and the second group consisted of (20) students taught by Gagne deductive model. Equivalence between the two groups was conducted regarding the following variables including the academic attainment of the students and their parents, place of residence, the student order in his family, age, intelligence and primary information test.
The teaching program included (18) teaching units distributed into two experimental groups in the amount of (9) teaching units for each model. The time of each teaching unit was (90) minutes in the amount of one teaching unit per week. The two researchers established a test to obtain certain sport education teaching methods' concepts based on the scientific steps to establish knowledge tests that are based on measuring the attainment, the maintenance of certain sport education teaching methods' concepts.
The researchers prepared the teaching plans in accordance to the two teaching models as well as the agendas of the groups represented the research sample and used the teaching- learning medium that was prepared by them as a teaching instrument to achieve better learning in addition to the following statistical means: (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, t-Test, Alpha Chronbach equation, Chi square test and Brodi equation).
The researchers concluded the following:
1. The level of effect between the two teaching-learning models (the constructional and Gagne models) in obtaining certain sport education teaching methods' concepts for the 3rd. stage was approximate.
2. The level of effect between the two teaching-learning models (the constructional and Gagne models) in maintaining certain sport education teaching methods' concepts for the 3rd. stage was approximate.
3. The teaching program, the teaching activities, the teaching-learning instrument in measuring and maintaining certain sport education teaching methods' concepts were effective.

The researchers presented the following recommendations:
1. Adopting the two teaching models that are based on the constructional theory as well as the pyramidal teaching theory in teaching the concepts of sport education teaching methods.
2. Adopting the academic attainment test prepared by the researchers in evaluating the academic attainment of 3rd grade students in the college of sport education.
3. Adopting the teaching material prepared by the researchers as well as the teaching-learning instrument in teaching the subject of methods of teaching for the college of sport education.

Effect of Using training program of high Intensity jump exercises on The Muscles of The Lower Limbs of Young Football Players

Ismaeel Abduljabbar

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 54, Pages 189-204
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6012

The current study aimed at identifying the statistical significances in some physical characteristics of lower limbs muscles of the two groups of the study; the experimental one which was subject to high Intensity jump exercises and the controlling one which was subject to the normal training program, through the results of the pre and post tests.
The research was executed on the scope of the study which was chosen intentionally representing the football team of young players in Alintisar School for the athletic semester 2008-2009 which consisted of 30 players. The sample of the study consisted of 24 players chosen intentionally and distributed randomly by using lottery method. The researchers used the experimental approach for its appropriateness to the nature of the study. They also used the following statistical means: arithmetical mean, standard deviation, percentage and t-Test.
The researchers concluded that high Intensity jump exercises achieved a significant variable in all physical characteristics (the horizontal explosive strength of the two legs, the vertical explosive strength of legs, and the strength that is characterized with speed when the pre and post tests of the experimental group are compared and for the benefit of the post test.

Evaluating skill ability for some basic skills in tennis

Tark .H. Al. jalabe; Ethar. A. Ghazal

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 54, Pages 205-214
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6013

ABSTRACT
This paper aims at ecaluating skill ability in tennis for the sopho more in the college of physical education and setting standards level for skills of forehand drive, backhand one and service.Both researchers utilized the descriptive approach and adapting the survey style. The sample consists of (166) students represented (%97,4) students of the total. Also Hewit test for measuring skills of forehand and backhand drive and Coban test for service are utilized, after carrying out the tests and processing data statiscally, the following conclusions have been reached.The success rates for skill abilities for research sample pertain to forhand drive, service and backand drive.The sample gained success rates for different levels of skills. Furthermore, the tables for the standards levels of skills abilities under study were reached mumbers of recommendations were proposed by both researchers.

Effect of using the declivity and pyramid weights training systems on some aspects of muscular strength and Basic skills in the volleyball

Anmar.A.ibrahim Aldabbag; Nabeel M. A. AL- sharoog

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 54, Pages 215-236
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6009

ABSTRACT
The research aims at revealing the following:
1) effect of using the declivity and pyramid weights training systems on some aspects of muscular strength and basic skills in the volleyball.
2) Which systems are more effective on some aspects of muscular strength and basic skills in the volleyballs.
To verify the research objectives; the researchers set the following hypotheses:
1) There are significant differences between pre and post tests of the declivity and pyramid systems in some aspects of muscular strength and basic skills in the volleyball's players.
2) There are significant differences between post tests of the declivity and pyramid systems in some aspects of basic skills in volleyball's players.
The researcher has applied the experimental methodology for its convenience with the research nature. The experiment was implemented on a population of players from Neinavah Young Team for volleyball reached (18) players aged (16-19) chosen intentionally and were divided into two experimental groups by lot. Group one applied the delivity system, whereas the second applied the pyramid system. (6) players were excluded for the explorative experiments. Equivalence and homogeneity were achieved between both groups of the research. Pre-tests of the muscular strength aspects and basic skills were carried out as well as the training program. Execution of the training program has lasted (8) weeks with a load movement undulation (3:1) in the amount of (3) training units per week. Then post-tests of muscular strength aspects and basic skills were performed.
The researchers employed the following statistical tools and attained the following conclusions:
 The two systems were effected clearly in some aspects of muscular strength.
 The two systems were clearly effect on some basic skills in the volleyball .
Based on the conclusions attained; the researchers recommended the following:
 The two training systems can be applied in developing muscular strength aspects and basic skills in volleyball.
 Confirm the use of the pyramid training system which has showed an evident superiority over the declivity system in developing muscular strength aspects and basic skills in volleyball.

Effects the variation of Control styles in Training Physical Components

Ayad Abdullah

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 16, Issue 54, Pages 237-266
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6008

The aims of research was:
1) The detect effect of the control style in the intensity of physical load on some physical and skill variables of the young soccer players.
2) The effect of the control style in the volume of physical load on some physical and skill variables of the young soccer players.
3) The effect of control style of the intensity volume of the physical training load on some physical and skill variables of the young soccer players.
The experimental methodology was used because it fits the nature of the research problem, the sample included (24) players selected from the young soccer players (under 19) from Mosul Sport Club in the Governorate of Nineva, who have played in the league of (2005-2006). The selected players are divided by lot into three experimental groups , each group consists of (8) players. The homogeneity is achieved in the third experimental group by having approximately the same age, height and weight, in addition to making equivalence in a number of physical and skill variables agreed upon by specialists.
The experimental design, which is called the design of the equivalent groups random with pre and post – tests, has been adopted.
The special measurements of the study included designing three training programs. The first depends on changing the intensity of the physical load, the second depends on changing the volume of the physical load, whereas the third depends on changing the intensity and volume of the physical load. Executing the three training programs lasted (8) weeks with two mesocycles and (4) microcycles with wave load (3 - 1) in mesocycle and with (3) training sessions per week.
The researcher had accomplished the post-training tests for the physical and skill variables in the study by following the same steps used for pre tests.
The researcher had come out with the following conclusions:
 Exceeding the third experimental group that depended on the control style in the intensity and volume of the physical load over the other two experimental groups that both of them depended on the control style in the intensity of load and control style in the volume load, where this exceeding has made a development in all physical properties studied in this research.
Recommendations:
 Emphasizing that the coaches have to use the training programs related to the control style in the intensity and volume of the physical load, which develops the total essential physical and skill properties needed for soccer play due to the positive results and good efficiency achieved by this programs in the present study.