Print ISSN: 1993-9345

Online ISSN: 2664-2514

Volume 14, Issue 48

Volume 14, Issue 48, Summer and Autumn 2009, Page 1-231


The effect of the low intensity interval training &the continuous training on developing of Aerobic endurance & the recovery speed for the Football players.

Jamil Khider Ali

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 48, Pages 1-26
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2008.50024

The goal of this research is to know the different between using the interval training & continuous training on developing of Aerobic endurance & the recovery speed in stage of general preparation for the youth football players.

The hypothesis of the research
The hypothesis of this research is:
To show statically different between the outcome of players in interval training group & continuous training group in developing Aerobic endurance & the recovery speed .
The researcher used experimental method the sample include 28 players & they are divided to 2 group each contain 14 players .
The researcher done the equivalence between them in (the period age of training & the outcomes of examination of Aerobic endurance.
After that the researcher has done the examination of (Aerobic endurance), the players divided to 2 groups (interval training & continuous training group) .
The whole program lasted for 8 weeks , indeed two units training in a week after finishing the two program s time , the researcher done the post-examination for the Aerobic endurance.
The researcher used the following statistical tools:
1.Mathmatical means
2.standard division
3.t(Test )

Conclusion
1.the two program of training showed development in Aerobic endurance.
2.the two programs of training showed adaptation in lowering the rate of plus rate in period of recovery at the end of second & five minutes.
3. the low intensity in the interval training is better than continuous training in developing Aerobic endurance & the average of plus rate in period of recovery at the end of second & five minutes.

The Effect of Interfered Teaching Style in Acquiring and Retention Basketball Skills (dribbling and setting shoots

Aead SHeet; Ziyad salim

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 48, Pages 27-41
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2008.50025

This research aims to know the effect of using two interfered teaching styles (training ,command) in gaining basketball skills(dribbling and setting shoots) , Samples consist of (40) student of the first stage in the collage of Sport Education in University of Mosul classified them in two control and experimental groups . Programs apply (8) weeks . The researchers supposed "the Existences of significant differences between student in control and experimental groups in pre - test . They concluded "Efficiency of interfered teaching styles in acquiring basketball skills (dribbling and setting shoot) .

Skills of Learning and Remembering And its Relation with learning motivation of physical Education students at University of salahadin

Feeda A .Al; Dhyaa Khayat

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 48, Pages 42-68
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2008.50026

Aim of study:
The purpose of this study was :
- to identify the relation between learning and Remembering skills with learning motivation of physical Education students at University of salahadin .

Material and Methods of study ;
- A sample of (100) students of both junior and senior of physical education college were conducted in this study .
- A learning and remembering instrument skills was used in this study.
- A certain statistical methods were used to analyzed this study such as; median , mean , standard deviation , and T- test .
Results and Recommendations;
On the basis of the analysis of the data , the following conclusion were presented :
- Learning motivation at students was raised in physical education.
- Learning motivation correlation at students are connected with numbers of learning and remembering skills.
- Sex variables, school stages, and living location are affecting by the nature of relation which connecting learning and remembering with learning motivations in students of physical education .
- More emphasis on learning, remembering and learning motivation should be taken into consideration by physical education instructions.

The Effect of Using Two Styles of Individual Teaching in Acquiring & Retention the Technique of Performance some Basic skills in Volleyball

Hazim Ahmed Matrood

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 48, Pages 69-92
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2008.50029

The Study aimed to achieve the following :
• Expounding the effect of using two styles of individual teaching (programmed teaching– personal teaching system) and traditional style in acquiring and retention the Technique of performance in some basic skills in volleyball.
The following hypothesis in order to achieve the objectives of the study, the researchers set forth
• No significant differences exist between using any of the two styles of individual teaching (programmed teaching – personal teaching system) and traditional style in aquriring and retention the art of performance in some basic skills in volleyball.
The researchers adopted the experimental style that is appropriate for the study. The research sample consisted of (36) sophomore students in college of sport education at Mosul University for the term 2006-2007. The sample was randomly distributed into three groups of ( 12 students ) in each and each group received its special teaching style as following:
a) The 1st experimental group : programmed teaching
b) The 2nd experimental group : personal teaching system (Keller's Plan).
c) The 3rd control group: traditional style of the teacher.
The groups were homogenized according to the variables of (age, height, mass, and some physical and motion fitness elements) affected at learning some of the basic skills in volleyball.
Two volleyball teaching programs were devised depending on references and specialists in teaching some basic skills in volleyball (setting the ball from above, passing from below, passing forward from the facing of head) according to the methods of (programmed instruction and personalized system of instruction) and the programs contain the curriculum of sophomore students.
The time required to complete the education program lasted for (6) weeks starting at 9/11/2006 and ending on 28 / 12/ 2006 . using two teaching units per a week and the duration of each unit was (90) minutes .
The data were collected and statistically analyzed using the statistical tools (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, multiple correlation coefficient, percentage , Anova one way and Duncan's test.
The researchers concluded the following :
1. The two individual teaching system (programmed teaching – personal teaching system) in acquiring the Technique of performance of some basic skills of setting the ball from above , passing from below and passing forward from the head facing are more active than traditional style.
2. The tow individual teaching system (programmed teaching – personal teaching system) had a supremacy in the proportion of retention to the skills of (setting the ball from above , passing from below and passing forward from head facing to the applied traditional .
The researchers recommended the following:
1- Applying the suggested teaching programs in teaching Volleyball skills in colleges and departments of sport education all over the universities in Iraq in accordance with the results research .
2 - When self teaching system is difficult to use in teaching some basic skills in volleyball, the programmed teaching style is preferred in order to achieve a level of performance better than when using the traditional styles.

The Effects of Using Different Styles of Goals Setting in Learning jump shooting skill basketball

Nadim Sh. Al-Wattar

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 48, Pages 93-114
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2008.50027

Goals are psychological components on which the important successions can be depending in the field of sport education. In the lights of scientific analyses of researches, it is found that goals have a great effectiveness to improve the athlete's performance particularly when it is allowed to those athletes themselves to set their own goals or at least participate in this process. The scientific discussion trend to interpretate these results according to that athletes be more acceptable and commitment to goals which set by themselves because of goal is an important mechanism of motivation used to determined the direction of goal. The problem of the research is confined to be acquainted with the essence of psychological effect of goals setting style on The jump shooting skill. Choosing a proper style of goal setting is an important difficulty facing the teachers, coaches, and athletes when applying educational and training curricula to achieve their goals .The research aims at revealing :The psychological effect of goals setting on Learning The jump shooting skill.
The researchers had hypothesized There are significance differences statistically in the style of goals setting among the three experimental groups at post-test for improving skills of jump shooting:
The researchers had used the experimental method, since it is convenient to the nature of research .The equal multi grouped experimental design with post-tests was taken up. The researchers had achieved the equality among the three experimental groups in variables of the chronological age, the high, and the weight; in addition to certain physical qualities .The sample was 60 students represents the first-class students of sport education collage, Mosul
University, the academic year of 2001-2002. The sample divided into three experimental groups with twenty students each.




The first experimental group represents the style of goal setting according to the self-pattern. The second experimental group represents the style of goal setting according to the delegation pattern (by teacher). The third experimental group represents the style of goal setting according to the combined pattern.
The program included 24 sessions and lasted 12 weeks with 2 sessions in a week. Having achieved these programs, the post-test had done for the variables in question. The researchers had concluded There are significance differences statistically among the three experimental groups at post-test for improving skills of jump shooting.
The researchers had recommended the following :Applying the styles of goal setting when preparing the basketball curricula in college and departments of sport education in Iraq.

“ The Transfer of the effect of vertical and inverted vertical learning by using learning tools in learning the skill of sstrike in Volley Ball

Mohammed Assmer Al – Hayane; Khalid M. Dawood Al- Bana; Ahmed H. Ahmed Al-Sowedi

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 48, Pages 115-128
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2008.50028

Research aims to uncover the follows :
1- Shifting the effect of the vertical learning by using the educational methods from the easy task to the hard one and vice versa of the finishing stroke styles in volley ball .
2- Differences between the research’s groups to change the effect of the vertical learning and the inverted one by using the educational methods of the finishing stroke styles in volley ball.
The experimental method was used to fit the nature of the research. “ That the sample was of 30 students divided into two equal groups (15 in each one) .
The first one was regular and the other was experimental ” , and then to achieve equivalence between them in the variables (age , height , size , and some elements of physical and motional fitness ) , and the researchers used (questionnaire , test , measurement and simple scientific observation) ways to collect data . Educational program was prepared for (5) weeks , (2) educational unit for each group per a week and (90) minute for each unit for teaching the skill of finishing stroke styles in volley ball in regard with shifting the effect of vertical and inverted learning . The technical performance of the test was evaluated . The researchers used (arithmetic mean , Standard deviation and titest ) as means to process the data statistically and they concluded the following :
1- The regular group which started with the easy task before the hard one (the vertical education accompanied with the learning methods) achieved the best positive shift of learning overwhelming beat styles comparing with the experimental group in every standard .
2- There were significant differences between the two groups of the research for the interest of the of the regular group which started the easy before the difficult task vertically .

Provisions and Credits of Horse riding in Islamic Doctrine.

Omar S. Jarjees

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 48, Pages 129-142
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2008.50030

Islam urges people to learn and practice horses riding became this type of sports is of a great importance in society due to the fact that it is the first weapon in both fighting and moving from one place to anther. The researcher mentioned a number of constraints and principles created by the speech of the prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him) and the successive influences of his companions, which is admitted by the legislator, makes practicing this type of sports allowed even if it is practiced for only amusement. The researcher uses the term "horse riding" to refer to shooting, dueling, and throwing the spear and the javelin which an only practiced by human being with some provisions because shooting is regarded as one of the most important means used in fighting during the old and modern ages.
Dueling is also regarded as important means in jihad and self Defence because it requires, bodies of the individuals to be in a direct contact and this type of sport is organized by rules to be followed where, the sport of the spear and javelin, known nowadays as "javelin throwing" and "spear throwing" within the events that form the track and field games, these types of sports have their own provisions and credits.
As for the games practiced by both human being and animals, they are the horse riding and camel riding. Human being interferes in competitions held among animals.
Competitions held among animals are also organized by rules to be following but these types of sports are regarded as the most honorable ones because the prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him) practiced them and urged people to learn and practice them.

Modes of Strategic Thought for the Physical Education Supervisors in the Nineivah Education Office

Nagham Khalid Nageb

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 48, Pages 143-159
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2008.50031

The aim of this research is to recognize the degree of strategic thought modes for physical education supervisors , in the secondary and primary schools in Nineivah education office . Also , it aimed to recognize the moral difference in the strategic thought modes , among physical education SUPERVISORS in the primary and secondary schools in Nineivah education office. And to investigate that , the researcher hypothesized two hypo thesis's : firstly , the positivety of the strategic thought modes for the physical education supervisors , in the primary and secondary schools , in the physical education office . Secondly , the researcher believed that , they had moral differences in the strategic thought modes among the physical education supervisors in primary and secondary schools in Nineivah education office . The sample of the research consists of (20) supervisors , and the researcher used the strategic thought scale which consists of (37) items as a research device , and the data were treated statistically by using the mathematical mean , standard deviation , correlation coefficient of person and (t) value the researcher concluded the following :
1- Reducing of the degree of using modes of thinking , planning , completing , and diagnosing .
2- Existence of the middle degree in using of divestment thinking .
3- Existence of moral distinction in diagnosing thinking between the supervisors of primary and secondary school , for primary school supervisors .

Constructed legal knowledg scale for tykowndow players and other faction

Waleed Khalid Rejab

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 48, Pages 160-176
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2008.50032

Aim of the study :
The present study aims to making gage to test legal knowledge for player and youth and advanced faction and the sample of research includes (8 clubs) respresented by clubs of middle area and north area and the total number of players is ( 128 players ) but the number of players whom answered the forms of research were (88 players ) to represent 74% and the scale includes five arbores : ( stadiums - accoutrements - weight - lottery – referees- point – warning) . there are 36 paragraphs or utterances made for this arbor
. the researchers used many statistical means to obtain the fineness of the scale of knowledge as the following : ( percent- item of difficulty index – item of easily index - item of distinction – gut man equation to find the real ability ) .
Result:
1- the results was as the follows . 24 accepted . 12 refused from 36 paragraphs as: ( 1-2-5-6-12-16-25-26-27-28-29-31)
2- the testing of legal knowledge has good fixing factor .785 .
Recommendation :
Using the obtained testing legal knowledge to test aspect of knowledge to test aspect of knowledge for players of tykowndow.

Construction of cognitive scale of the rules of handball for student of college of sport education

Saad Basim Jameel

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 48, Pages 177-193
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2008.50033

The researcher used descriptive method by using survey style because it is suitable for this study.
The research society is (104) students (boys and girles ) from forth stage in the college of Sport Education , university of Mosul for 2007- 2008.
sample of study is sample of building that consists of (70) boys and girls , who still continue in their study after excluding experiment sample which contains 6 students to make the sample 73:8 from the sample total .
the researcher used the questioner The present study aims to:
• Construction a cognitive scale of the rules of handball for the student of the college of sport education.
The scope of the study:
Humanely space: senior students in the college of Sport education , university of Mosul
• Time Space: from 1/10/2008 - 30/4/2008.
• Place space: in door Hall in the college of Sport, university of Mosul
and analyzing contents as a mean to collect data:
• Accounting mean, Percent, Easily, difficult, distinction, and Getman modulus.
The researcher resulted :
Building Gauge for Legal Knowledge for Handball for students of college of Sport Education
Recommendations:
It is recommended that the study uses this gauge as a mean in a month examination for college of Sport Education in the subjects of law of handball.

The effect of stop-training on some elements of special physical health and some basic skills of badminton

Ammar M. Khaleel

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 48, Pages 194-215
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2008.50034

One of the most important principles of the athletic training science for activities in general and especially badminton game is the continuity of training with constant rate to ensure rising in physical and skill properties to reach the target.
The main problem of the present work is to answer the question: “what is the effect of training stop on some elements of special physical health and some basic skills at badminton players”. The researcher assumed that their will be a significant differences between the test used to measure the level and the other tests after stopping training, with 4-weeks period, assuming that better results obtained from the first one.
The experimental method adopted, with a sample from Nineveh’s Olympic team players of badminton game. The main training program was used for 9-weeks period with average of 3 units weekly. After the main training program, the test of measuring level performed directly. Then the researcher does the tests after each week of stopping training. The work give some conclusions summarized as:
1. Stopping training for one to four weeks caused decreasing in level of some special physical properties and some of basic skills with a percentage of decreasing for the second week greater than the first and third weeks and the third week give more decreasing than the forth week.
2. The decreasing level in some physical properties (Force with speed properties for arms, force with speed properties for legs, and flexibility) are faster than the percentage of fitness for the four weeks.
3. The decreasing percentage of the basic skills (low short service, high long service, smash ) are approximately the same for the four weeks.
1. The b decreasing percentage of the force with speed properties for the arms are relatively greater than the other elements of the physical properties

The Impact of Cyclic Training using Low Intensity Interval Training on Developing Some Elements of Physical Fitness

Maki Hamudat

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 14, Issue 48, Pages 216-231
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2008.50036

Many trainers have attempted to try a number of training programs to train their players . These programs consist of many aspects including , concentration , impact, and rationing efforts in order to increase the physical abilities . thus , a large umber of trainers have resorted to cyclic training methods to achieve these goals .
Cyclic training is characterized by developing a number of physical characteristics and stemming from its importance , the researcher chose the subject of cyclic training in order to expound its impact on the elements of physical fitness required by the students when performing various sport activities .
The study aimed at
• Expounding the differences in legs' explosive strength between the pre-training and post-training tests .
• Expounding the differences in speed between the pre-training and post-training tests .
• Expounding the differences in flexibility between the pre-training and post-training tests
• Expounding the differences in endurance of abdominal muscles between the pre-training and post-training tests .
The researcher used the experimental method and the following tests :
( speed of 50m/ s , long jump from standstill test / cm , abdominal endurance test , /repetition , flexibility test / cm ) and the subject sample consisted of a number of 1st grad students in the college of sports education . The statistical methods used in the study included
( the arithmetic mean , standard deviation , t-test and percentage ) .
The researcher concluded that significant differences exit in favor for the post training test for the four physical tests conducted in the study .