Print ISSN: 1993-9345

Online ISSN: 2664-2514

Volume 13, Issue 45

Volume 13, Issue 45, Summer and Autumn 2007, Page 1-231


Creative Thinking and Its Relation to Cognitive Achievement in the Subject of Swimming

Nadim Sh. Al-Wattar

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2007, Volume 13, Issue 45, Pages 1-26
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6198

The study aims at measuring the creative thinking and its relation to cognitive achievement in the subject of swimming among first grade students in the College of Sport Education of the University of Mosul and expounding the relation between Creative thinking cognitive achievement in the subject of swimming. The study was carried out on the population sample consisting of (87) first grade students in the College of Sport Education in the University of Mosul in the semester (2004-2005). The population was divide into two groups, the first group of (57) student representing (53.27%) of the population and was designated as the test group for cognitive achievements in the subject of swimming while the implementation group consisted of (30) students representing (28.03%) of the population.
The scientific procedures for constructing the cognitive achievement test in the subject of swimming including the validity of experts, and statistic analysis of the items. To reach the results of the Creative Thinking Scale (Princeton 1989) was adopted as a statistical tool to construct the cognitive achievement test in the subject of swimming.
The tests were carried out from may 5th, 2005 to may 9th 2005 the results were corrected according to the statistic standards of the research tools using (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, difficulty of item, discrimination of items and analysis of variance.)
The researchers concluded that no correlation exists between creative thinking and cognitive achievement in the subject of swimming within the scope of its nature.
The researchers recommend that emphasize should be applied towards the importance of developing creative thinking in training in colleges of sport education in the country and providing an appropriate psychological environment for the student to insure creating opportunities for innovative and creative thinking among them according to educational objectives sought by education curriculum in Iraqi universities.

Effect of the Swimming Pool on Some Bio-Kinematics Variables in the Frontal Summersault in Gymnastic

Obay Ramiz

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2007, Volume 13, Issue 45, Pages 27-41
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6187

The study aimed to expound the values of some bio-kinematics variables when using either the floor mat or a swimming pool in performing the frontal summersault in gymnastic for college students in the second grade in the Physical Education Department. Besides, the study aimed to expound the differences between the bio-kinematics variables when using the floor mat or when using the swimming pool.
The subject sample consisted of the best four players whom are students second grade from the physical education department and they were deliberately selected and homogenized according to body mass, age, and training experience.
The researcher adopted the descriptive method appropriate to the nature of the study and the data were collected through observation using a video capture device. An investigation study was performed to determine the best camera angle for shooting and after two days the main experiment was carried out.
The statistical tools, which were used in the experiment, are as following :(arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and t-test for correlating samples). The resulted were presented and discussed and stemming from the results, the researcher concluded that differences in the arithmetic means exist in favor for the use of the swimming pool. The use of the swimming pool led to the increase of the ability of the subject sample to develop perception for using related motor skills. Besides when concerning the bio-kinematics variable, a significant difference exists between the performance in the swimming pool and the performance on the floor mat. Therefore, the researcher recommends using the swimming pool by trainers and coaches of gymnastic in training difficult movements, increase the intention on the gymnastic events, using alternative training methods and offsetting the fear of the trainee by including more than one positive incentive to reach the optimum performance

The effect of teaching by using traditional steps and difficult parts of movement styles in learning m1ooHurdle for women

Hussein S.Ibrahim

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2007, Volume 13, Issue 45, Pages 42-68
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6191

Important of the study:
Since there were some differences in teaching and training styles in all physical education activities, there is aneed of learning m100 hurdle in order to performance and skills of this activity.
Therefore, the researcher tried to solve the problem by using an experimental study which contains of (normal–steps and complex–parts style of movement) in order to compares between these two styles through m100 hurdle learning.
Methodology
-descriptive research was conducted in this study.
-a sample of (20) female of sophomore in the college of physical education at the university of salah aL-diun.
-après –and post test was used to get the rescults.
-a-t-test is sued statistical in order difference between both groups.
Conclusions:
on the basis of analysis of the data, the following conclusions were presented:
1-the normal–step-training style has positive effect in learning technical performance of hurdle, with significant differences in favor of post-test.
2-the second experiment exercises (normal-steps style) has positive effect in learning technical performance of m100 hurdle with a significant differences in favor of post-est.
3- the first experiments grope (normal-steps style)has over come in post-tests on the second experimental group(complex-parts style) of movement in learning technical performances of m100 hurdle, with significant difference in favor of normal-steps style group.

The research aims at revealing the comparison between the effect of two ways of the direct and indirect mental training in developing some basic skills in volleyball . The researchers followed the empirical way in their wark.

Ammer Sudey; Jasim AL-Rome; Ahmed AL-Sweede

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2007, Volume 13, Issue 45, Pages 69-92
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6196

The research aims at revealing the comparison between the effect of two ways of the direct and indirect mental training in developing some basic skills in volleyball . The researchers followed the empirical way in their wark.
The data of the research is a group of 16 students of the fourth year (specialized in volleyball ) in the College of Sports Education. University of Mosul . the students have been distributed into two equal empirical groups as 8 students per group, There was equivalence between the two groups in the variables of (the age, light, body mass, cleverness, the attention appearance, sport mental illustration and some elements of physical and movement fitnes that effect in learning the basic skills in volleyball as well as some basic skills in volleyball .
The personal meeting and the tests and measurements have been used as means to collect information. Two learning programs for volleyball have been suggested, the first includes a learning program of the determined schedule for the students of the fourth year to which the direct mental training was, the second is the same as the first with the addition of the indirect mental training.
Each program consists of 24 learning units adopted during 12 weeks as two unites per week; the duration of each unit is 90 minutes. The researchers applied the following statistical means: (The arithmetic mean, standard deviation and T- test of unrelated mean and T- test related means , to deal with the data. )
The research concluded to these two results:
1. The direct and indirect mental training ways which have been adopted within the two learning programs, have a positive effect in developing some basic skills in volleyball.
2. The first empirical group, which carried out the direct mental training, seemed equal to the second empirical group, which carried out the way of the indirect mental training in the post –test used in developing some basic skills in volleyball

A comparative study for different age groups in learning free swimming

Jassim AL-Roomy; Wathah AL-Sumaydaee

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2007, Volume 13, Issue 45, Pages 93-114
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6194

The tow researchers used the experimental method and the sample had (43) learners during the summer – term teaching at the university of mosul swimming pool 2005 . The sample was divided into four groups according to age , first group (6 up to 9) years , second group ( 9 up to 12) years , third group (12 up to 15) years , and the fourth group (15 up to 18) years . Each was made as homogeneous as possible regarding the variables of (age , height , weight and the thickness of fat) . The teaching course for all four groups was made of (12) units of (60) minutes each given (3) units per a week teaching . At the end of the teaching course , all four groups were tested by five tests . The tow researchers reached many conclusions , but the most important one was that the tow groups , second and third were superior to the first group by test of ( floating over water surface for (2) minutes ) . Also the same tow groups were superior to the first and fourth groups by test of ( free swimming for a distance of (15) meters ) .

A study of offensive component compositions of most effective and used in volleyball.

Azad H.Qadir

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2007, Volume 13, Issue 45, Pages 115-128
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6188

Important of the study :
The important of this research was to discover and identify the offensive component compositions , and which is the most effective and useable during the match of volley ball Also , to know the differences between the levels of offensive component compositions.
Statement of the problem :
The major problem of the research was the following :
- to was the following the offensive team has no ability to play with different offensive compositions in a technical performance.
Aim of the study:
1-To identify on offensive component compositions of most effective and used of Iraqi varsity teams of universities in volley ball.
Methodology
- A sample of (60) players of Iraqi university varsity teams of 2004-2005.
- A sample total of (5) from (6) university was conducted and the percentage of the sample was (83%).
- A descriptive research was conducted in this study for the time of 26/2/2005 – 2/3/2005 at the college of physical education, university of salahaddin.
- The researcher used standard test for the evaluator of the skill of spiking sere which has been used by international federation as an accurate instrument test :
Results and Recommmmedations.
On the basis of the basis of the analysis of the data, the following conclusions were presented:
1. The high and fast offensive Components of the game was most used and affective. On the other hand, the medium offensive Components of the back ward zone.
2. More emphasis on specializing and selecting players of all affective Components should be taken into consideration.
3. More emphasis on training of all kind of Components on the training unit should be taken into consideration especially on the back ward zone of the volleyball.

The relationships between explosive power for arms and legs and some biokinematic variables for team handball players

Mohammed .Khleel

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2007, Volume 13, Issue 45, Pages 129-142
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6197

Explosive power one of the most important physical element fitness in team handball, there are two basic important factors which are very effective in shooting these factor are explosive power for arms and legs and throwing velocity.
This research aims at knowing the values of correlation between the explosive power for arms and legs and some biokinematic variables for team handball players.
The samples of research were eight players took part in the test of the research. The data were collected through video camera by using (adobe photo shop) programs and (auto cad) programs in order to know the values of biokinematic variables.
The research revealed the following results
- There were significant correlation between the explosive power for legs and the explosive power of arms for the team handball players .
- There were significant correlation between the explosive power for legs and the velocity of shooting for the team handball players .

Recommendation
- Making sure in training to develop the explosive power for legs in team handball game.
- Making sure to develop the explosive power for shooting arm because it has important role in throwing velocity.

Biorhythm And Iraqi Records In Athletics

Okla Selaiman Ali Al-Hory

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2007, Volume 13, Issue 45, Pages 143-159
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6192

The problem of the research was in answering the following question: What is the type of relationship between biorhythm cycles and Iraqi records in Athletics? As far as the researcher is concerned no other Iraq researcher tackled the Iraqi records before which haven’t been broken for 10-30 years. The Aims of the Study to identifying the biorhythm cycles (physical, psychological and cognitive) for athletic players in Iraq. The extent of correlation between the dates of records with the biorhythm cycles. The relationship between the date of achievement and the phases of the biorhythm between bottom and top and the intersection of these cycles. The research have two hypothesis, The date of achievement has a strong relationship with the positive intersections of the three biorhythmically cycles (physical, psychological and cognitive). The dates of records with the tops in biorhythm curves. The sample of research were (11) athletes who hold the records in the Iraqi Athletic Federation. The Roseanne concluded that seven records in (100m, 200m, 400m, 1500m, 3000m, 5000m, 10000m) were held during two cycles out of three in the positive phase while one of them was in the negative phase. And he recommendeal to teach coaches how to calculate the dates of the biorhythm cycles and using the guidance of a sport psychology consultant on all international athletes.

The standard scores for some essential skills in football for the freshman students in the college of sport education

Yahya M. Mohammed Ali; Waled Kaled; Zuhair K. Al-Ghashab

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2007, Volume 13, Issue 45, Pages 160-176
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6189

The researchers used the descriptive method because of its stability for the nature research , this study aims at putting the standard scores for some essential skills in football for the freshman students in sport education college at the university of mosul by using (6 segma) score .
And to know suitability of the test some for age and six of the samples which included (119) students out of (161) . the researchers used tests for different skills such as : dribble ,trabbing, controlling the ball and the accuracy of passing the ball .
The researchers used the arithmetic mean , standard division , modified standard scores , percentage and coefficient of skewnses This study has achieved several results which are : all test are suitable for the age and six of the samples with the exception of the controlling test of ball , the researchers had recommended . the use of table of standard scores in evaluating students in the previous skills.

The effect of correction program of some biomechanical errors for long pass in hand ball

Mohamed .Khleel; Wadee yaseen

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2007, Volume 13, Issue 45, Pages 177-193
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6193

Handball as any group games which has multibasic principles which depend on perfectionist follow corrective style in teaching and training ways, the successful of team depends on the principle of players' perfection of handball.
The research aims at:
- Identifying the mechanical performance errors.
- Putting a corrective program for these errors.
The sample of the research was (15) sophomore students in the college of sport education the data collected through video camera in order to know performance errors.
The data statistically were dealt by:
- mean
- standard diversion
- t- test
Conclusions:
- there is development in accuracy
- there is development in throwing ball
Recommendations
- Using the program for correcting biomechanical errors.

construction and APPLICATIONthe emotional arousal for basket ball player

Esam Mohammed; Khaled Faisal; Abdel Kareem Kasim

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2007, Volume 13, Issue 45, Pages 194-215
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6195

The research aimed at construction scale of the emotional arousal for basketball players and knowing to reveal the differences among the three cases ( the normal ,important ,and unimportant match ) the level of the emotional arousal for basketball players, the sample constructed (375) basketball players for all ages, the application sample included(10) players representing the seniors of the Air defines Club2001/2002, The researchers followed procedures to construct the scale ,the data were processed statistically by using "T"test , validity with factorial analysis and reliability The scale of the emotional arousal at the end stab included (31)phrases and (6)damnations, the results were as the following : there is an increase in the degree of the emotional arousal accompanied with at decrease in the importance of the match above the normal finally,: The researchers had recommended for a certain recommendations in psychological at training with setup skills ,tactics and phiscal fitness

Analysis of the relationship among some Biokinematics variables with some anthropometric measurementin the Butterfly swimming

Falah Taha Hamo

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2007, Volume 13, Issue 45, Pages 216-231
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6190

The research aimed at :
1- Recognizing the values of some Biokinematics variables and some of anthropometric measurement in the 25m butterfly swimming.
2- Finding of the relationship between the values of some Biokinematics variables with the values of some anthropometric measurement in the 25m butterfly swimming.
3- Finding of the relationship among the values of Biokinematics variables .
The descriptive method was used. The sample included (5) swimmers of the senior group of Nineveh team. The Technical scientific observation, analysis and measurements were used as means to collect the data to obtain some of the Biokinematics variables values and some anthropometric measurement values, to achieve the technical scientific observation accurately , the videography was used. The study included a number of Biokinematics variables and anthropometric measurement.
The data have been processed statistically by using the mean, standard deviation and simple correlation.
The researcher concluded the following:
1- There is no significant correlation between Biokinematics variables values and anthropometric variables values.
2- There are significant correlations among some Biokinematics variables values.
The researcher recommended some recommendation to be utilized in the learning and coaching to get the best performance