Print ISSN: 1993-9345

Online ISSN: 2664-2514

Volume 13, Issue 44

Volume 13, Issue 44, Summer and Autumn 2007, Page 1-218


Leadership Behavior and Its Relation to Job Satisfaction of Sport Education Teachers at the Mosul City Center

Naqi Hamza As-Sayya; Nadim Sh. Al-Wattar

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 44, Pages 1-28
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6036

Sport is considered one of the fundamental mainstays on which comprehensive revival of modern societies rests. Teachers of sports in this context are regarded as a significant part of the overall pioneering leadership that undertakes the leading role in the society in the field of sports education. Therefore, leadership behavior assumes more significance as it attracts the interests of both students and school administration .Job satisfaction, which is relevant to achievement in sport education this is because of the teachers of sport is one of the central factors affecting their leadership behavior in the school context. For realizing balance in the basic needs of teachers usually necessitates job satisfaction and job satisfaction is an indicator to the stability of man in his work environment .This thesis aims at a designing of a scale for job –satisfaction of sports’ education teachers beside the preparation of a leadership behavior scale of sports education teachers. It also expounds the relation between leadership behavior and job-satisfaction of sports’ education – of Teachers at Mosul city center The research hypothesis that have was no significant correlation between the leadership behavior and the job satisfaction . The researchers has adopted the descriptive approach for it best fits the research at hand. The research population consists of the teachers of sports and schools’ administrations at the Mosul City Center. The number of the sample is 87 teachers and 63 schoolmasters located on both left and right sides of the City Mosul. Then this population has been subdivided into two samples to construct and implement the job –satisfaction scale in sports’ education. The construction sample consists 64% embracing 56 teachers while the ratio of the implementation sample consists 36% embracing 31 teachers.
The construction process rests on several scientific procedures such as statistical analysis of items using internal consistency, extreme groups, etc. the construct of scales entailed objective specifications or characteristics of the scale which included experts’ validity, construct validity, criterion related validity besides a number of exploratory experiment and reliability. So the final draft of the scale contains 25 items while the choice alternatives encompass (always, sometimes, rarely).
To cement the scientific quality of the research and after streamlining all the scientific procedures relevant to the scale of leadership behavior and the construction in full of the job –satisfaction scale, both scales have been applied to the research sample when the leadership behavior scale has been handed round the school masters’ sample to measure the leadership behavior of sports’ education teachers in general and within its two dimensions of interest in the job and interest in humanities . The job –satisfaction scale on the other hand, has been distributed among teachers on the right side of Mosul City Center.

The relation between over-activity and the dynamic perceptive efficiency of over-active and Healthy third grade students

Laith Al bana

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 44, Pages 29-57
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6040

The stuty aims at finding out the the following
a- The relationship between over- activity and the dynamic perceptive efficiency of over – active third grade students.
b- The relationship between lesser activity and the dynamic perceptive efficiency of third grade students.
The study was limited to ten grade students from Al- Ethar primary school. Whom they were intentionally chosen then the divided into two groups each consisted of five students .First group presented over-active students while the other ore presented Healthy students. The researcher used the descriptive method for it is suitablty for the nature of the research. The resea rchers also used two instruments,one for identifying over- active students ,and the other for measuring the dynamic perceptive efficiency for the students. The dadta were collected and statistically treated by using percentage ratio smean standard deviation pearson correlation coefficient,T-test and simple correlation coefficient.
The results were as follows.
1.The is non significant correlation between over-activity and the dynamic perceptive efficiency of the over-active students.
2.There is a significant correlation between the lesser-activity and the dynamic perceptive efficieny of the ordinary students.
The researchers recommend:
1.Early identification for those who are over- active students should be done ,mean while ,an attempt should be taken to help their parents to establish programmes that would develop students personal abilities through increasing their self –confidence and potential which would straighten any unwanted behavior and increase their abilities to understand scienfic subjects .
2. Letting the students to express themselves and physical abilites,and their desires lessons , which provide wid the student with an interactive environment based upon physical freedom , away from classic use of physical performance .
3. Educating parents on the importance of developing students hobbies and encouraging sports and self- entertainment , or encouraging the students to develop his own personality , both spiritually and socially , which , as a result ,would straighten the students behavior . instead of wasting of their time .

The impact of feedback using video display and image frames on some biomechanics of backwards flip and landing using the uneven bars (asymmetric bar ) events for students of physical education

Obay Ramiz

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 44, Pages 58-74
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6035

The study aims to expound some biomechanical variables of backwards flip and landing on (uneven bars ) and expounding video framing on some of those variables .
The subject sample consisted of (4) students from the college of physical education whom were deliberately selected and homogenized according to body mass , physical age and training experience ( they have practiced gymnastic as members of Youth club ) . the researcher adopted the experimental method which is appropriate to the nature of the study and the data were collected using video capture device . The researcher conducted an investigation test to determine the best location for the camera position and the next day conducted the re-experiment and followed after four days with the post experiment test .
The statistical tools adopted were ( arithmetic mean , standard deviation , and t-Test for correlated items . the results were discussed according the statistic results and it was concluded after analyzing and discussing the results that a difference in the arithmetic means in the favor of the post experiment test were achieved conforming the hypothesis . besides , perception of the layers after seeing heir performance on video had a positive impact in overcoming the difficulties of not repeating he mistakes when performing once again .
The researcher recommends that the coaches pay attention to the effectiveness of assisting and alternative methods in gymnastic training and including display perception when training the players .finally the researcher recommends that similar studies to be conducted on more than one type of gymnastic benches and for advanced ages .

THE RELEATION OF MOMENTUM AND KINETIC AND POTENTIAL ENERGY WITH ANGULAR CIRCUMFERENC VELOCITY OF THROWING ARM AT HIGH-JUMP SHOOTING IN HANDBALL

Mohammed Khaleel

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 44, Pages 75-88
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6041

This study aims at :
- identifying the values of some Biomechanic variables at high-jump shooting in handball .
- identifying the releationship between these values.
Aspects at the study .
The human aspect : Iraqi handball clubs of north area.
The time aspect : 8 , APRIL , 2006 .
The place aspect : AMJED NOORI INDOOR – MOUSUL .
the sample of the study was consisted of SIX players who play in handball Iraqi clubs of north area who were distinguished in shooting from out side of the nine meter area . the data collected through video cameras byusing (adobe photo shop ) programs and (AutoCAD ) programs in order to know the values of body joints angles the study revealed the following results .
- Kinetic energy and potentil energy were positively affected by momentum at the high-jump shooting in hand ball .
- Angular velocity was positively affected by potentil energy of the player at shooting in handball .
Recommendation :
- Making sure that the player get much more kinetic energy by the momentum .
- To execute the shooting at high speed in order to get much more kinetic energy
- in Making sure at take off to reach high point in order to get much more potential energy to change it to large angular velocity when shooting handball .

The Effect of Two Aerobic Intensities of Exercise on Free Radicals and Antioxidants Formation

Yasin T. Al-Hajjar

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 44, Pages 89-98
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6033

This research reviews the role of free radicals in causing oxidative stress during exercise. Low and moderate intensities exercise induce oxidative stress, although there is no evidence that this affects sporting performance in the short term (14 min.). The effects of the two intensities of exercise on the blood antioxidant capacity and serum lipid peroxidation in 7 volunteers male athletes were tested. The results showed significant increased in malondialdehyde (MDA) level (as an index of lipid peroxidation) in subjects after first and second efforts of exercise in comparison with the control group. On the other hand, reduced form of glutathione (GSH) concentration and superoxide dismuatse activity (SOD) were decreased in the exercised experimental subjects under treatment compared to control values.

Effect of accumulated aerobic work with a progressive intensity on the blood pressure variables and Heart Rate

Ahmed A. Ghani; Yassin T. Al-Hajjar

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 44, Pages 99-120
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6037

The importance of current study lies in being acquainted with the temporary effect of an aerobic work upon the blood pressure variables in healthy subjects. The study aimed at being acquainted with the values of blood pressure variables at each of two minutes as a temporary response throughout a progressive intensity aerobic work lasting 14 minutes in addition to be acquainted with the limits of significant change in blood pressure values throughout this effort.
The sample included 10 students from the college of physical education at university of Mosul. The sample conducted a standardized test of aerobic effort for 14 minutes. The variables of heart rate (HR), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP) were measured at each of two minutes throughout the effort period in addition to measure them at rest. The values of variables at rest had compared with the effort states in addition to compare the latter values at each of two minutes with the next one throughout the effort period. The means, standard deviations, and ANOVA by repeated measurements were used to process data statistically.
There were signifigant differences between the rest and some stages of effor for the variables of SBP, HR, MAP and PP.
Having the result presented and discussed, the study concluded the following:
 The progressive intensity aerobic effort makes a significant change in variables of blood pressure in comparison with the rest (excluding the variable of DBP), in addition, when transferring from one stage of the effort to another progressive one. However, the latter change was until specific limit.
 The change occurring in variables of SBP, HR, MAP, and PP when transferring form the rest to effort does not contentious throughout all stages of the progressive intensities effort, but values of those variables stabilize approximately at the first third of effort where as the HR does not stabilize until the final stage of effort.
Finally, the study recommended to conduct future studies dealing with blood pressure variables at other various intensities and durations

Effect of combining the learning part with practical part on learning some basic skills and academic learning the time in wrestling credit

Ziad Tariq Hamid

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 44, Pages 121-138
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6034

The researcher depends upon combining the learning part with the practical one to learn some motor skills included into the credit learning program as s new style improving the motor performance because the time of two parts is the largest form other times of learning session which reflects the whole time of practice of students as a basic factor in learning wrestling principles.
The research aims at being acquainted with:
- The effects of combining the learning part with the practical one to learn some motor skills in wrestling.
- The time of academic learning between the two groups of research.

The experimental method was used since it is convenient to the nature of research.
The sample included two classes with 28 students selected at Random from the third academic year in college of physical education. The equinity and harmony of the sample were done. The learning program included 10 sessions for experimental and control groups. The Anderson system of observing and score the student's behavior was adopted to count the time of academic learning.
The researcher concluded the following:
1- Combining the learning part with the practical one has more effect on improving motor skills.
2- Combining the learning part with the practical one increased the practical time and information comprehension in addition to decrease other things.
The researcher recommends the following:

1- Utilizing the style of combining the learning part with practical one in learning motor skills of wrestling.
2- Using the style of combining the learning part with practical one in building the learning session of wrestling for increasing the time of actual participation of student.

Analysis of the relationship among some anthropometric measurement with some kinematics variables in the 25m breast swimming

Waleed Gh. Thanoon; Falah Taha Hamo

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 44, Pages 139-154
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6038

The research aimed at :
1- Recognizing the values of some anthropometric measurements values and some kinematics variables in the breast swimming of 25 m.
2- Analysis of the relationship among the values of some kinematics variables in the breast swimming of 25 m distance.
The descriptive method was used. The sample included (5) swimmers of the senior group of Nineveh team. The technical scientific observation, analysis and measurements were used as means to collect data to obtain some of the kinematics variables values and some anthropometrics measurements values. To achieve the technical scientific observation accurately, the videography was used. The study included anumber of anthropometrics measurements and kinematics variables. The data have been processed statistically by using the mean, standerd deviation and simple correlation. The research concluded some conclusions related to some anthropometrics measurements and some kinematics variables .The most important issues of these conclusions are:
1. There is a significant negative correlation between the strokes number of leg hits and the length of thigh.
2. There is a significant positive correlation between the stroke length rate of leg hits and the length of thigh.
3. There is a significant positive correlation between the stroke frequency rate of arms and the length of leg.
The research recommended some recommendations to be utilized in the field learning and coaching to get the best performance.

Effect of Correction Exercise program in the Incline Angle of Shoulder Blade and the Technical Performance of Rotating and Transportation on the movement Pony Device for Peginner.

Arrif Muhsin Ibrahim

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 44, Pages 155-170
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6032

The study aims to expound the impact of correction exercise program in the incline angle of shoulder blade and the art or performance of rotating and transportation on the pony device for beginner. The subject sample consisted of the beginner champions of the province of Nicene van in the gymnastic events.The sample was homogenized according to body mass, age, and training experience.
The researchers adopted the descriptive method which is appropriate to the nature of the study and the data were collected through observation using a video capture device type (Sony 25 frame / second) An investigation study was performed in the indoor gymnastic court of the college of physical education to determine the best camera angle for shooting and the best location for the pony instrument.
The appropriate statistical tools were used in the experiment, after the determination of variables by the computer and according to bio mechanic analyzies systems which were used to present and discuss the results.
According to the results, the researchers concluded that significant differences exist in favor for the post – test for the angle of inclination of shoulder baled and technical performance The use of correction exercises led to the positive increase of the ability of the subject sample to develop rotating and transportation skills and was positively affecting the general performance.
Therefore, the researchers recommended to use the correction exercises by trainers of gymnastic for novices and beginners in training on pony and use these exercises for other difficult movements.

Effect of competition on some immunity constituents of team hand-ball players

Mahmood Hamdoon; Nashwan I.Abdullah

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 44, Pages 171-182
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6039

The response of some blood immunity of constituents of (7) team handball player from the college of physical education (university of mosul ) , their mean Ages , Heights ,and Weights (24) SD + (1.15), (71.57) SD + (13.35), (176. 42) SD + (5.47) respectivlly. The procedures of the research included a pre and post competition. Measurment of the blood includes: Immunoglobulines (IgG – IgA) and complement (C3) by using (Radial Immunod Iffusion Test Kit) (RID) The study revealed no significant differences in Immunoglobulins (IgG – IgA) concentration, and in complement (C3) before and after competition.

The Effect of Using the direct Mental Training way in Developing Some Basic Skills in Volleyball

Ammer M.Sudey

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 44, Pages 183-204
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6031

The research aims at revealing the effect of using the direct mental training as well as the determined schedule the fourth year students from the college of sports education in developing some basic skills in volleyball . The researchers followed the empirical way and the sample of the research is a group of 16 students of the fourth year in the College of Sports Education . who are distributed into two equal groups; 8 students per group. There was equivalence between the two groups in the variables of (the age, length, mass, cleverness, the attention appearance, sport mental illustration and some elements of physical and movement fitness that effect in learning the basic skills in volleyball.
The inter view and the tests and measurements have been used as means to collect information. Two learning programs for volleyball have been suggested, the first includes a learning program of the determined schedule for the students of the fourth year, whereas, the second is the same as the first with the addition of the direct mental training.
Each program includes 24 learning units adopted during 12 weeks as two unites per week; the duration of each unit is 90 minutes. The researchers applied the following statistical means: ( The arithmetic mean, standard deviation and t- Test of two related and two unrelated arithmetic means in order to deal with the data. )
The research concluded to these two results:
1. The direct mental training way as well as the determined schedule of the fourth year students (specialized in volleyball) that have been adopted within the two learning programs, have a positive effect in developing some basic skills in volleyball.
2. The empirical group, which carried out the direct mental training, seemed better than that of the developing the skill of overhead serving and moving the ball from the front of the head towards .as well as block wall )

A comparative study in senso-motor conception between football and basketball players

Farman Y. Yousif

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 13, Issue 44, Pages 205-218
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2007.6042

The aim of the study ware to know the differences in senso-motor conception between football and basketball players.
The researcher assumed that there was a significant differences in senso- motor conception between football and basketball players, for the benefit of football players in senso-motor conception of legs, and for the benefit of basketball players in senso-motor conception of arms.
Sample of study represented the two varsity of dohuk university in football and basketball, which were consisted of (26) players,(12) of them represented basketball players.
The researcher applied the tests of the senso-motor conception as fallowing:
1- test of senso-motor for the distance of jump .
2- test of senso-motor conception for distance and vertical gap for feet.
3- test of senso-motor conception in distance and horizontal gap for arm.
4- test of senso-motor conception in distance and vertical gap for arm.
The researcher concluded the fallowing:
1- There were significant differences in two tests of senso-motor conception in distance and horizontal and vertical gap for arm, for the benefits of basketball players.
2- There were no significant differences in two tests of senso-motor conception for the distance of jump and vertical gap and distance for feet between football and basketball players.