The Impact of Two Educational Programs for the Techniques of Strategic Thinking to Teach the Game of Chess on the Development of Some Aspects of Attention for the Age Group 13-14 Years
Al-Rafidain Journal for Sports Sciences (RJSS),
2022, Volume 25, Issue 76, Pages 177-205
The aim of the research is the following:
Preparing a program that includes two techniques of strategic thinking of the game of chess and revealing the effect of the program on developing some aspects of attention. Regarding the research methodology, the researchers used the experimental method for its suitability and the nature of the research. The research community represented the age group (13-14) years in the city of Mosul, as the number of boys reached (40750) and the number of girls (28478) and their total (69228). The researchers adopted the age group of boys as the research community. And by the method of drawing lots, the leaders secondary school was named as a center for conducting exploratory experiments related to research variables and the Al-Awael secondary center for conducting the experimental research experiment, as the research sample consisted of (60) learners, then this sample was divided into two groups by lot, each group includes (30) learners, then the two researchers randomly named the two groups also according to the two techniques of strategic thinking. According to the technique of thinking scenarios (30) learners, and (8) learners were excluded from the first experimental group and (3) learners from the second experimental group due to lack of commitment to the program’s lessons, and with regard to the experimental design, the two researchers adopted the design of the corresponding groups, and the two researchers conducted the equivalence between the two research groups and the homogeneity of the variance in (aspects of attention, and multiple intelligences) as well as mental ability. An educational program for both experimental groups according to their own techniques by (20) educational units, then a post-test was conducted in the aspects of attention on the research sample in order to obtain the raw data that were statistically treated through the percentage to determine the percentage of expert agreement, for (simple correlation coefficient, and Spearman-Brown coefficient, and the arithmetic mean, and standard deviation, and Levin's test, and the T-test for two independent samples, and the T-test for two linked samples, and the statistical package (SPSS) was used to conduct statistical analysis), and the results showed the convergence of the impact of each of the strategic thinking program according to thinking techniques from all directions and the strategic thinking program according to Artistic thinking scenarios in developing the aspects of attention (focus, and distribution, and transformation) and the time of attention manifestations.
In light of the results and conclusions of the research, the researchers recommend the following:
1. Adopting the educational content of the game of chess as a basic material for middle schools for directorates of education.
2. Adopting both the strategic thinking program according to the technique of thinking from all directions and the strategic thinking program according to the art of thinking scenarios in teaching the educational content of the game of chess.
3. Adopting mental packages and the games, exercises and mental tasks they contain in training the mental capabilities of learners of the age group (13-14) years.
4. Adopting of the educational methods used in research in teaching the educational
content of the game of chess.
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