Print ISSN: 1993-9345

Online ISSN: 2664-2514

Current Issue
Volume 22, Issue 69

Volume 22, Issue 69, Winter and Spring 2019


Responses of the Respiratory Ventilation and Certain ECG to the VO2 Percentage in two Aerobic Stresses depending upon Resistance and Speed

Ahmed Aldabagh; Ali Jasem Alhyali

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 69, Pages 1-46
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2019.163015

The pulmonary and electrocardiograph (ECG) variables are from the most interpretative indicators of the cardio-pulmonary system to bump  blood and deliver oxygen for active tissues during various stages of a physical stress. So, the importance of this research lies in being acquainted with the magnitude of increasing in minute ventilation (VE) variables, tidal volume (TV) and respiratory rate (RR) in addition to the incremental graduation of heart rate (HR) as indicator of the maximal Oxygen consumption (VO2max), P-R interval, QRS, and S-T interval during various stages of two aerobic stresses gradual incrementally to exhaustion without time limit but one of them depending upon resistance and other upon speed increments in specific stages. Thus, the findings may answer the problem of this study: Does the graduation in these two aerobic stresses differ? And where such as this difference could be utilized in fields such as endurance improving, weight loss, health? Or any field may rise in the range of this research. The research aimed at being acquainted with the Responses of the (VE)  in function of (TV) and (RR) and certain ECG of (HR), P-R interval, QRS, and S-T interval to the VO2 Percentage within (subjects) and Between (groups) of two Aerobic Stresses depending upon Speed and Resistance.
The sample included 10 healthy active male students of the physical education college. The sample was chosen intentionally. Variables in question were measured at rest. Then, sample was subjected to two gradual aerobic stress tests requiring the subjects to reach their maximal Vo2. The same variables were measured throughout stages of the stresses stresses. Data were processed statistically by using mixed ANOVA of within subjects repeated measurements and between groups for revealing the responses imposed by stresses and weather the stress type have an effect upon these responses or it is independent of them.
The research concluded that

§ During the last anaerobic high-intensity phases of both aerobic gradual stresses, the VE with its two variables TV and RR could raise remarkably. But there were no effects of the type of stress upon the VE with its two variables TV and RR in these stages
§ During the last anaerobic high-intensity phases of both aerobic gradual stresses, the HR had a little change in addition to a little change throughout both stresses in times of P-R interval, QRS, and S-T interval. But there were no effects of the type of stress upon the HR, times of P-R interval, QRS, and S-T interval.

The research recommended that
a.The aerobic gradual stress depending upon resistance could be adopted to improve the VO2 max within less possible time and utilizing from raise of both TV and RR.

The aerobic gradual stress depending upon speed could be adopted to improve the VO2 max within higher RR.

 

An analytical study to evaluate the level of performance in matches for Iraqi players in Taekwondo

Mahmood Shukur Salih; Mohammed Ali Shukr

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 69, Pages 47-60
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2019.163016

The aim of the research is to determine the most important skills used in the matches and to determine the most important sub-skills used in the matches as well as "to determine the most important plans used in the matches included the sample of the players are excellent clubs of the second phase of the season of 2012 and the number of (8) teams. Team  with (60) games. Data were obtained on the method of analyzing the matches of the Premier League Premier League second stage by a questionnaire prepared by the two researchers by reviewing the scientific sources of Taekwondo sport. (Hoo, 1986) (Kim, 1990) (shin, 1975), composed of basic skills, sub-skills and plans used in matches. Data was recorded by analyzing the film about the games and then emptying the forms to obtain the data. The researchers used the statistical means necessary to reach the results of the research.                                                
The researchers concluded:
 -The skill of the ball is the most common skill skills between the basic skills in terms of total repetition, with a recurrence (660) successful recurrences, which amounted to (212) and percentage (32.12%).                                                                            
- The skill of the straight kick inside and the skill of the double Hilali sub are the most skilled skills between the skills in terms of total repetition as the frequency of each (160) successful recurrence of the ball kicked straight inside (44) and percentage (27.5%), (22%) and a percentage (13.75% )
- The attack one kick on the body is the most offensive skills used between the offensive plans in terms of total repetition as the frequency (680) successful recurrence of which amounted to (222) and percentage (32.64%).
 -Defense One kick on the body is the most defensive skills used between the defense plans in terms of total repetition as the frequency (489) successful Currence of which amounted to (84) and percentage (17.17%)
-The percentage of total basic skills was 75.71%, while the secondary skills were 20.22%. The percentage of offensive plans out of total plans was 66,23%, defense plans 33.76%
The researchers recommended the following:
 -Adoption of the search results and grades of each skill and methods of plans by all trainers and work in the construction of the training program.
-Focus on developing the skills through which players can get the biggest points recorded in the matches.
-Focus on the development of the skills of players and players can get the three points
 -Focus on the development of motor skills of players so that players can perform all offensive and defensive plans and according to the requirements of the circumstances of the game
Key words: Taekwondo basic skills, offensive skills, defense skills, offensive plans, defensive plans, kicks in Taekwondo

The effect of taking pure creatine that accompanied with training on some body component and measurements for beginners

Yassin AL Hajar; Yasser Muneir AL-Bakal

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 69, Pages 61-91
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2019.163017

The problem of this research is that most of previous studies and researches tackled the effect of taking creatine in a limited aspect( physical or functionl) and meglecting other phgsical aspects body component  and measurements in one experiment under the same conditions to study the effect of creatine on one specimen group in the same level, in the same age and under the same conditions., athletes preparing programs and developing athletic level There isnt any study tackled the effect of creatine on behinuers . The aims of the research is to find  the following : -The significant difference in some body components  and measurements for beginners between pre-and post test for the experimental and controlling group . The significant difference in some body components and measurements for beginners between the two post-test for experimental and controlling group . The  researchers supposes that :There is a significant difference between pre and post test in some body components   and measurements for the experimental and controlling  group for the benefit of the post tests . There is a significant difference between the two post-test in some body components   and measurements for beginners for the experimental and controlling  group in post test for the benefit of the experimental group . The  researchers used the experimental program because it suites the nature of the research who was practiced on a group of  (50) participants in physical fitness activities which have no previous athletic experience and did not train in the past, the research specimen was choozen from them which are 20 participants chosen intentionally, this specimen in turn was divided into 2 groups randomly, each group Comprises 10 participants. After achieving equivalence between the two groups in the variables of( chronological age, length,and body mass), The experimental design includes two groups, one is experimental and the other is controlling , the pre test were performed on both groups, then the dependant training programs were accomplished in theresearch, the experimental group performed the training programs with taking of pure creatine , the controlling  group performed the training without taking pure creatine then the post-tests were performed to calclate the difference between the pre-and post-tests of each group individually, and make a comparison between the two groups in the post-test.
The research procedures include designing a training program that is presented on  by some experts, and also include sceuting  experiments and determining the intensities used in training programs and doing some pre test measurments that depended in the research, then the training program, implemented which took 9 weeks by 3 medium courses 4 times weekly, and (2:1) load motion wave for each medium course . After finishing the training program the post tests and measurments were performed by using the same proceduers in the pre tests and measurments . The  researchers reached to the following conclusions:-
- Creatine caused increase on body mass and Fat-free and mass decrease on Fat mass and fat percentage .and increase on body circumference and muscle volume (muscle cross section) and decrease on skin folds thickness, whereas in the controlling  group there was increase on body mass and fat-free mass and there was no significant difference on fat mass and fat percentage although it was less than the pre-test level .-The development rate of the experimental group that taking creatine was in the upper limps (trunk and arms) more (better) than that of the lower limps(legs) The  researchers present the following recommendations and suggestions :-
-should encourage taking creatine ynder specialist supervison The trainers should follow-up their players continuously when taking such preparations and nutritional supplements and doing medical examination from time to time the special sides should mak sure that preparations and nutritional supplements have real referenco not only what is written on the Cansor (leaflets).
- Doing similar studies on other variables and measurements

Building a test for the detection of scoliosis among primary school students in the city of Mosul

Omar Thanon; sayaf Azaat

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 69, Pages 92-104
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2019.163018

The research aims at the following :
-          Design and construction of a test to detect deformity of the scoliosis among primary school pupils in the city of Mosul .
-          Develop standard grades and levels for the detection of scoliosis in primary school students in Mosul .
           The researchers used the descriptive method in the survey style due to its suitability to the nature of the research problem. The researchers examined ( 3634 ) students of primary school pupils in the city of Mosul and found 225 pupils with scoliosis. The sample consisted of 100 pupils. As for the application sample, 125 cases of deformation were discovered in the pupils .The researchers used the following statistical means (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, torsion coefficient, percentage, simple correlation coefficient, sigma 6 and Kays square) .
The researchers reacheded the following conclusions :

As a result of the use of scientific methods used, a test method was found to detect deformity of scoliosis. It has a good scientific basis based on trustworthiness, objective stability and natural distribution. It is the “stick on the shoulders detection test”.
A table of standard levels and standard scores for the test was obtained.
The approved test was based on natural distribution.

The researchers recommend the following:

Adopting the test which achieved the scientific foundations of trustworthiness, consistency, objectivity and natural distribution in detecting deformity of the scoliosis among primary school students.
Relying on the standard table reached in the research in assessing and evaluating the level of deformity of pupils' scoliosis.
The use of this test and its application by school administrations and physical education teacher at the beginning of the academic year and in the middle of the academic year to see the status of pupils and for continuous follow-up.

Comparative Mechanical Analysis between Open and Curved Frontal Air flip on Gymnastics Floor Mat

Abi Ramez al- Bakri; Bashar chasm Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 69, Pages 105-117
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2019.163019

           The science of biomechanics is one of the sciences that aided achieving best result in heigher levels of sport performance , as it provides us with accurate information, which  considered as one of the best scientific means that contribute to achieve the goals of motor skills. The aim of the research to identify some of the mechanical variables of the skills of the open frontal air flip frontal pike flip on the gymnastic floor  mat, the differences between some mechanical variables between the two flips, and which skills are easier to perform. The study was carried out on the sample of the Erbil Gymnastics Team on the floors of (Shahid Shakhwan) Gymnasium in the Faculty of Physical Education for the period from 8/5/2018 until 10/5/2018. The researcher used the descriptive method  appropriate to the nature of the study. The sample of the study was chosen in a random  way , consisting of five players in gymnastics events representing the Kurdistan Region of Iraq for the gymnastics. The information was collected by the means of a technical scientific observation by videotaping with a modern camcorder (sport cam) at a speed of 120 frames/second. The exploratory experiment was conducted on 8/5/2018 at 11:00 am in order to fix the location for the camera and provide the performance requirements for the athletes performance in . May 10, 2018, at 11:00 am, the main experiment of the study sample performing the front pike flip and open frontal aerial flip was filmed. The research was  analyzed by special programs of analysis  and the results were tabled showing the statistical parameters for  clearly discussion.
The researcher concluded that there are statistical differences in the arithmetic means of all variables of both flips unless displacement, the potential energy and the full energy showed moreale significance differences for the sake of open frontal aerial flip which showed that it requires more effort than the Pike flip which achieves the research objective according to the mechanical approach in determining the comparative aspects. The trainers of Gymnastics  for Youth or juveniles should start training their athletes by using the easiest skill like the Pike flip, and then adopt special training programs to prepare for training in the open frontal areal flip by giving  longer period of training.

Evaluate the Roles of Coaches By Enhancing The Footballers Sportsmanship of The Super Iraqi Leagues in Futsal

Ryad Ahmed Alashrifi; ThakerMahfooth al- Dulaimi

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 69, Pages 118-137
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2019.163020

The research aims to: -
1-    Scale building by Erected the gauges for enhancing the footballers sports manship of the Iraqi footballers coaches in Futsal from the footballers point of view .
2-    Identifyingthe levels for enhancing the footballers  manship Sport that which act by the Iraqi footballers coaches in futsal  the super Iraqi leagues from the footballers point of view .
 The description programme had been used by the survey method and it included two samples , the build and the final application ( 182 / 120 ) footballers in frequently for the super Iraqi league teams and to get data of enhancing the manship sports whish had built and applied it in default of the scientific conditions on it . The data had been corrected by counting with using the arithmetic the standard deviation and the simple linkage with Gettman equalization and Alpha Cronbach  operator . The two investigatars deduced many things like :-
1-    Ability Gauges for enhancing the footballers manship sports by the coaches which had built in the super Iraqi leauges teams in futsal .
2-    The footballers Iraqi coaches in futsal have got a very high interested in enhancing the footballers manship sports by acting the inclusive vision with developing its sides .
The two investigators advised many tips :-
1-  The ability of depending on the sitting education gouges to evaluate the role of coaches in enhancing the players manshipsports .
Encourage the coaches to keep their a distinct  roles in enhancing the players manship sports and encourage them to go on with the central Iraqi union of football and their configuration managers of their clubs . 

The effect of the strategy of guidance in playing to developself-concept among the children of the school at the age of (11-12) years

nibras youns almorad

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 69, Pages 138-155
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2019.163021

The research aimed to:

Designing a proposed psychological program by using the guidance strategy to play in the development of the self concept of the children aged (11-12 years).
Explain the effect of the strategy of guidance in playing to developself-concept in the children aged (11-12) years.

 
The experimental method was used for its suitability and the nature of the research. The research sample consisted of (40) children(male), which were divided into two groups with 20 children per group. The equivalence was carried out in the following variables: (the order of the child between his siblings in birth, age, Intelligence, as well as measuring the self-concept.
The program consisted of (16) sessions, the duration of the program (8 weeks), two sessions per week (Sunday, Wednesday), and the duration of the session was (45) minutes, While the control group was subject to the daily program plan. The researcher used the following statistical methods: (percentage, arithmetical mean, standard deviation, simple correlation coefficient, t test of related samples, t test of independent samples, Seprman equation to correct stability coefficient, relative equation of change).
The researcher concluded the following:

The proposed psychological counseling program has developed in the development of self-concept, when comparing the pre post measures of the children of the experimental group.

The proposed psychological counseling program outweighs the development of self-concept among the children of the experimental group compared with the controlling group

The Effectiveness of TheInstructional Training Package Using The Educational Technology of Developing The Multiple Intelligences of The Third Year Students

Jamal Shukry Basseem; Wael Dathar Ali

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 69, Pages 156-170
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2019.163022

The Aim of the Research :
- To detect the effectiveness of the instructional training packages using the Educational Technology of Developing the multiple intelligences of the third year students in the faculty of physical Education and sport sciences at the university of Mosul .
       The researchers used the experimental method for its convenience with the nature of the research . The society of the research involves the students of the third stage in the faculty of physical education and sport sciences at the University of Mosul the year (2017 – 2018) . The sample was deliberately chosen of classes B and H which consisted of (46) students (5) of them were eliminated either because of absence or postponing the year ; The sample of the research consisted (41) students , The experimental group of class B consisting of (27) students and the controlling group of class H consisting of  (14) students . The Equivalence was done in variables of (The age , initial information and creative thinking ) ; The experimental design chosen is called the design of the equivalent groups containing two tests the pre-test and the post-test . The two researchers prepared the instructional training packages and then exposed it to the experts and specialists of the material of teaching methods to check the reliability of the instructional training packages. Then they did the pre-test by the measures of  multiple intelligence . Then they did the pre-test by the measures of multiple intelligence . Then they initiated the experiment which involved (10) units according to the instructional training packages , from (26-2-2018) until (23-4-2018) the two researchers held the post-test to measure the multiple intelligences after finishing the main experiment in (24-4-2018) . In order to get the results of the research , the researchers used the statistical package SPSS .
The researchers Concluded :
- The effectiveness of the instructional training packages is in developing the multiple intelligences of the third year students in the faculty of physical education and sport sciences in the University of Mosul .
The Researchers recommended :
- Methodology teachers of the faculty of physical education and sport sciences go away from the style of filling and instructing in teaching the material of teaching methods .
- Using the instructional training packages in teaching the material of  method of teaching of the faculty of physical Education , because it has proven its effectiveness in teaching the concepts of the material.
-  Using the modern , methods , styles and designs of teaching . That is for its proven effectiveness in teaching the material of methods of teaching of physical Education 

The effect of using fish pond strategy on cognitive achievement in handball

Mohammed Mohammed; Charwan Hameed

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 69, Pages 171-187
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2019.163023

The research aims to reveal:
- The use of the strategy of fish pond on cognitive achievement in handball among the basic students.
In light of these objectives, the researchers hypothesized:
1-There are statistical significant differences between the average of the two means pre and post measures of experimental group and the controlling group in the cognitive  achievement in favor of post measure.
2 - There are statistical significant differences between the mean of the two post measures of the experimental group and the controlling group in the cognitive achievement in favor of the experimental group.
The research community was composed of (98) secondary second grade students (eighth grade) in the intermediate schod of Sulav / Dohuk governorate for the academic year (2017-2018). The researchers used the experimental design of one group with the pre and post-tests. The researchers based on the strategy of the fish pond as an independent variable and where the teaching plans were prepared. The study lasted 8 weeks, during which students received 16 lectures and as two lectures a week. In addition, to that the researchers modified the test of cognitive achievement by the handball law, which were composed of (40) items. The researchers performed the equivalence in variables of ( Age, intelligence,and cognitive achievement) using the statistical bags of (SPSS)) and in the light of statistical analysis it was showed the superiority of the students of the experimental group, which was taught according to the fish pond strategy in the cognitive achievement and in the light of these results the researchers conclude the following:
1 - The traditional method (explanation and model) contributed positively to increase the rate of improvement of cognitive achievement improvement of the controlling group mambers.
2 – The strategy of using of fish pond contributed positively to increase the cognitive achievement of members of the experimental group mambers .
3 – The strategy of using of fish pond was more influential at the level of cognitive achievement than the traditional method (explanation and model), which refers to it`s effectiveness and impact.

Obstacles of Privatization Application in Iraqi Sports Clubs As Seen By Members of their Administration

oday ghanem alkawaz; Muhammad Abdulwahab Aziz

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 69, Pages 188-201
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2018.163024

The aim of the research is to build a scale of the obstacles to privatization in Iraqi sports clubs from their Administrations point of view And to identify the obstacles that prevent the transition to privatization from the point of view of their administrative bodies The descriptive method was used and the study sample consisted of (222) members of randomly chosen sports clubs. The questionnaire was used as a means of data collection, and in the statistical analysis the weighted average and percentage were used , The main conclusions, and in the statistical analysis the weighted average and percentage were used. The main conclusions were the  lack of technical capacity for the privatization of sports clubs And the weakness of human resources qualified to implement privatization and the absence of legislation and administrative regulations Lack of financial resources and refusal of club workers to work within the private sector

effect of speed-handling exercises using different distances to develop performance and achievement in running 1500 meters for students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences

Abdullah Hassan Ali; Othman ALBAYATI

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 69, Pages 202-212
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2019.163025

The research aims to:
- Detecting the impact of speed-lengthening exercises using different distances to develop performance bearing in running 1500 meters for students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences.
- Detecting the effect of speed-spinning exercises using different distances to develop the achievement in running 1500 meters for students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences.
- Detection of the significance of statistical differences between the control and experimental research groups in carrying performance and achievement in running 1500 meters for students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences.
The researchers used the experimental method for the suitability and nature of the research. The research society represents the students of the fourth stage in the College of Physical Education and Mathematical Sciences - Mosul University for the academic year (2017-2018) of (129) students. The sample of the research was chosen by the intentional method, (16) students were divided into two groups, 8 students were surveyed and excluded. The following statistical treatments were used: (arithmetical mean, standard deviation, T test for the associated samples, T test for unconnected samples ), And the researchers reached a number of conclusions were the most important:
- The proposed training curriculum has had a positive impact on the development of performance and performance improvement in running 1500 m in the sample research.
- Results showed significant differences between the experimental and control groups in carrying performance and improving the achievement in running 1500 m and in favor of the experimental group.
- The results showed significant differences in the tests of the dimension in carrying performance and achievement in running 1500 m and in favor of the experimental group.