Print ISSN: 1993-9345

Online ISSN: 2664-2514

Current Issue
Volume 20, Issue 66

Volume 20, Issue 66, Summer and Autumn 2014, Page 1-193


Effectiveness of Skilful Exercises on the Performance Level of Twisting Movements on the Carpet of Floor Exercises for Youth Gymnastic Players

Abdul-Jabbar Abdul-Razzaq; Saib Mahdi Ibrahim

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 1-21

The research aims at revealing the following :
- The effectiveness of skilful exercises on the performance level of twisting movements on the carpet of floor exercises for young gymnastic players for the experimental and control samples .
To verify the research objectives , the researchers have set the following hypotheses :
1. There were significant differences in the pre and post tests in the skilful performance level of twisting movements on floor movement carpet in gymnastic for the experimental group and for the benefit of the post test.
The research methodology and field measures :
The research has been performed on a sample of the youth team of Nineveh governorate in gymnastic ( age 14-18 years ).The research sample includes (10) players divided into (5) players in a group selected intentionally via a lottery by drawing numbers (1 to 10) and placed in a case in a way that each player draws a certain number . The researchers named the owners of the odd numbers under the control group and the owners of the even numbers under the experimental group. The research items were applied completely in terms of the tests , evaluating performance level of twisting
Effectiveness of Skewing Movements Exercises
movements , pre and post "tests" for both experimental and control groups under the same circumstances in terms of the availability of modern training hall and modern gymnastic devices for both research groups . The researchers adopted the experimental methodology for its convenience to the nature of the research.
The research measures included distributing a questionnaire form to the specialists and experts to determine some skilful exercises and performance level of researched movements .
To verify the achievement of equivalence and homogenous between both groups in variables of ( age , height and mass ) and the skilful exercises and technical performance level of twisting movements on the carpet of floor exercises determined for the research by the experts and specialists .A training program has been designed and applied on the experimental group as well as making a number of survey experiments to transcend the problems and difficulties in performing exercises in addition to the suitable repetitions and suitable times of rest for these exercises that suit the research sample .Then , pre-tests for some skilful exercises and the level of skilful performance have been performed . Next, the experimental group has performed the program prepared by the researcher . The training program was lasted (8) weeks during intermediate courses as (4) short courses for the first course , and (4) short courses for the second course . The researcher has performed post-tests in a number of skilful exercises and the performance level of twisting movements and the same steps followed in the pre-tests .
The researcher has obtained the following results :
After finishing the research measures , the researcher has obtained the following results :
- The training program of the experimental group affected positively on developing the skilful performance level by the device of floor exercises .
- The training program for the experimental group achieved a development greater than the training program for the control group in developing the skilful performance level by the device of floor exercises in addition to the twisting movements from (180-1080) .
Recommendations :
- Using the training program of twisting exercises in developing skilful performance level .
- Gymnastic trainers interested in training special basic skills as right basic point for all movements on the carpet of floor exercises .
- The gymnastic trainers need to make verity of exercises and the possibility of investing the properties of these exercises to develop skilful performance for gymnastic players .
- Paying attention to train acrobatic twisting movements for their big and effective value in raising degrees of difficulty to maximum .

Evaluating of the Communication Components of the Sport-Educational Supervisors from the Point of View of Sport-Education Teachers (male & female) in Mosul City

Reyadh Ahmad Esmail Al-Ashrifi; Firas Mohammad Saeed Al-Haggori

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 22-50

The research aims at Constructing a scale to measure the communication components for the sport-educational supervisors from the point of view of sport-education teachers (male & female ) in Mosul city . and Recognizing the level of communication components and components for the sport-educational supervisors.
The researchers have used the descriptive methodology with the survey style . The study includes a sample of sport-education teachers ( male & female) as (250, 107) divided into a construction sample and application sample respectively .To achieve the research objectives and obtaining data , the questionnaire has been used after the researchers has constructed a scale of communication components for the sport-education supervisors from the point of view of the sport-education teachers (male & female) .After providing the scientific conditions , they have been applied on the research sample .The data have been treated statistically via the arithmetic mean , standard deviation, percentage, simple correlation, and t-test for two independent samples .
The following results have been obtained : constructing a scale of communication components for the sport-education supervisors from the point of view of the sport-education teachers (male & female),the sport-education supervisors enjoy a good level of communication components compatible to the level of their dimensions (listening , question and discussion, and evaluation ) while the effective discourse, and response appeared in a very good level, and there were some negatives in the dimension components of communication components for the sport educational supervisors as follows :the supervisors use a single accent and voice speed in their supervision discourse ,the supervisors adopt the formal context in their response to the educational attitudes, the supervisors avoid to presenting a clear perception clarifying their understand to the discourse of the sport education teacher, and the supervisors depend on their memory in recalling the educational attitudes. The researchers have recommended a number of recommendations like : Enhancing the scale prepared by the researcher in measuring the communication components for the leaders of the sport organizations after adapting it to the requirements of their work, enhancing the communication components for the sport-education supervisors via their participation in the training courses, conferences, and the specialized internal and external scientific symposiums ,and preparing a guide for the sport-education supervisors via holding workshops dealing with illustrating communication components and their effects on supervising tasks.

Effect Of using Differentiated Instruction Strategy On Acquiring And Preserving Some Offensive Skills In Handball

Laith Mohammad Dawoud Al-Banna; Mohammad Abed Ali

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 51-69

The research aims at revealing the following :
Effect of using a differentiated Instruction strategy on learning some offensive skills in handball for the fourth-year students / institute of preparing teachers in Nineveh .
To verify the objectives of the research , the researchers have hypothesized the following :
The researchers have hypothesized there were no significance statistical differences in :
The results among the post-tests in learning some offensive skills in handball for the three research groups.
The research community was selected randomly from the students of teachers preparation institute in Nineveh (Mosul centre) . On the other hand, the research sample was selected randomly from the fourth-year students / institute of teachers preparation (semester 2012-2013) as (53) students .
The researcher have selected three groups . The methods have been distributed to the groups on a lottery method .So, the research groups were as follows :
Group B :the first experimental group ( applying the flexible group strategy and learning centers ).
Group A :the second experimental group ( applying the strategy of learning centers ).
Group C :the control group ( applying the method adopted in the institute ).
The equivalence was done among the groups in the variables of (age, height and mass) as well as in some elements of physical fitness affecting learning some offensive skills in handball. Accordingly, the researchers have used the experimental design called the design of the equivalent random groups with the pre-tests and post-tests vigorous control.
Both research instruments have been prepared representing by the tests used to measure the researched handball skills. So, the training program related to handball skills (Pass the ball from above shoulder level , pass the ball from above the head, pass to the side, shooting from forward jump, and shooting from the level of shoulder to the side ) have been prepared according to the strategy of learning centers and the flexible groups . The program lasted (3) weeks as two learning units per a week . This program has been performed during the period from 3/3/2013 till 26/3/2013.
After applying the experiment , preparing the research instruments , collecting data , inputting data and processing them statistically by using ( arithmetic mean, standard deviation, difference test, anova one way, dimensional difference analysis , simple and multi correlation coefficient and L.S.D ).
The following results have been obtained :

1. The differentiated Instruction strategy ( learning centers and flexible groups) achieves better acquisition of some offensive skills in handball compared with the normal method.
2. The strategy of learning centers and flexible groups is better than the strategy of (learning centers alone) in acquiring some offensive skills in handball.
Recommendations :
In the light of the research results , the researchers have recommended the following :
1. Using the strategy of learning centers and the flexible groups in the differentiated Instruction in teaching handball skill and the other skills.
2. Using the strategy of learning centers in the case of inability to combine the strategy of learning centers and the flexible groups in the differentiated Instruction
3. training the teachers (of primary and secondary schools) and the education supervisors during their service on the differentiated learning to make them know the characteristics and benefits of this modern Instruction strategy.
Suggestions :
The researchers have formed a group of suggestions for the future studies as follows :
1. Making similar study on the rest of the text practical materials of the secondary schools,and the institutes and colleges.
2. Making researches to compare the other strategies with the strategy of the differentiated Instruction.

Comparative Study of some Pulmonary Ventilation Variables during Recovery of An Anaerobic Effort in Two Different Environment (Aquatic and Landward)

Ahmed A. Taha; Mohammad Mohammad Ahmed

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 70-82

The present study aimed at recognizing the significance of differences in variables : tidal volume (TV) , the number of respiration bouts (RR) , pulmonary ventilation (VE) , during different stages of recovery from anaerobic aquatic effort (50m free swimming ) as well as anaerobic landward effort (200m run). The study also aimed at making a comparison among the studied physiological variables between (50m) free style swimming and (200m) run according to the training principle (1:4) swimming to running.
The research sample includes (10) students / college of sport education who used to practice swimming and are consistent in (50mr) free style swimming . The descriptive methodology has been adopted for its convenience to the nature of the research.
The tests include running (200m) , free style swimming (50m) during two days .
The physiological variables have been measured at the minutes ( 5,10) of the negative recovery .
The data have been processed statistically by using the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, t-test for two independent samples, t-test for two correlated samples , ANOVA test within subjects.
The researchers have concluded the following :
Restoring recovery after anaerobic aquatic effort (50mr free style swimming) may be fast in the physiological variables (VE , RR, TV) at the minutes (5and10) .However , in spite of being fast , these variables do not reach their state of rest tidal volume .
Restoring recovery after a landward anaerobic effort (200mr run according the principle 1:4) may be fast in the physiological variables (VE , RR, TV) at the minutes ( 5and10) .However , in spite of being fast , these variables do not reach their normel state as it is in rest situation .
(50m) free style swimming and (200m) running may cause the same changes in each of ( VE, TV , and RR) at recovery stages ( 5and10) minutes .
The researchers have recommended the need to consider the differences in the physiological variables assumed by the specialty of the practiced activity whether swimming or running during constructing training units .
It is necessary to make next studies dealing with the same differences between the swimming effort and landward effort on a sample with other levels may be males or females and beginners or youth .
It is necessary to make next studies dealing with the present subject for other distances and activities .

Constructing a Shyness Scale for the students of the Physical Education at Mosul University

Rafie Idriss Abdel Ghafoor; Hanin Abdul Karim Qasim

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 83-120

The research aims at Building a Shyness Scale for the students of the Physical Education at Mosul University, Descriptive method with survey style for suitability to the nature of the research , the research sample of students of Physical Education at the University of Mosul's, consisted of (241) female and male , representing (83%) of the original populationof the study , the Shyness Scale which was constructed by researchers was used after depending on scientific procedures and steps in constructing psychological scales as a tool of the research .
The researchers used the SPSS package to determine the (arithmetic mean , standard deviation , percentage, t- Test, and correlation coefficient)
The researchers concluded the following:
* Constructing a Shyness Scale for the students of the Physical Education at Mosul University.
* Accepting all axes that form the subject matter which are (4) axes.
The researchers recommended the following:
*Adoption of shyness Scale for the students of Physical Education at the University of Mosul to measure the shyness of their student and then take advantage of these results to help students solve their problems through guidance and counseling
*the possibility to benefit from the scale of Shyness in order to make comparisons between the different grades.

Effect of a Suggested Psychological Program on Reducing Psychological Stress to Improve Skilful Performance Level on Balance Bar Device for Female Students / College of Sport Education / Mosul University

Moa; yad Abdul-Razzaq Al-Ghurairi; Ashraf Luai Salim Tohala

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 121-157

The study aimed at :
- Constructing a suggested psychological program on reducing psychological Stress to improve skilful performance level on a balance bar device for female students / college of sport education.
- Finding the degree of psychological stress and skilful performance level on a balance bar device for female students / college of sport education for experimental and control groups .
- Finding the effect of a suggested psychological program on reducing psychological Stress to improve skilful performance level on a balance bar device for female students / college of sport education.
- Finding the differences in psychological stress and the skilful performance level on a balance bar device for female students / college of sport education for experimental and control groups in post test .
The researchers have adopted the experimental methodology for its convenience to the nature of the present research . The research was performed on a sample selected randomly and represented by female students / college of sport education / Mosul university as (20) female students . The female students were divided randomly into two groups ( experimental and control ) as (9) female students for each group after excluding (2) female students and (9) female students for the field experiment .
The researchers have used the experimental design called ( the equivalent groups ) randomly selected with both pre and post tests .
Then ,the researchers prepared a psychological program( psychological skill training ) which included training on three psychological skills : relaxation , mental speculation and attention concentration. The suggested psychological training program is applied on the experimental group before starting the common teaching as for the skill of relaxation and mental speculation and as (3) units for relaxation and (4) units for the mental speculation . Thus , the training units were (7) . On the other hand , the skill of attention concentration for which the training units were performed as (3) units . So , the program lasted (4) weeks as (3) training units per week . The time of training unit was (25-30) minutes for the period 30/4/2013 until 26/5/2013 . The main research experiment is applied at the indoor of physical fitness / college of sport education / Mosul university .

Impact of some aspects of muscle strength exercises in number of physical variables and the level of achievement for 50-meter freestyle swim for men

Enad Jarjees; Omer Rashed Hamdoon

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 66, Pages 158-193

The training and good planning in swimming have a good deal of attention in the attempt of scientists and specialists to take advantage of other sciences in the development process, which requires advance planning and creating all the conditions to achieve the feat, and this requires a state of full readiness and effective and appropriate training plans the strength training considered one of the important physical attributes in the training of swimming and is one of the core exercises to strengthen the muscle groups to which take part in the performance.
The aspects of muscle strength training one of the most important methods by which the coach can develop muscle strength among swimmers through their performance skills into the water and determine the most important physical exercises that have impact on all stages of the swimmer.
Research aims to detect:
1.3.1 The impact of some of the exercises muscle strength in a number of physical variables for swimmers of 50-meter freestyle for men.
1.3.2 the impact of some of the muscle strength exercises in the level of achievement for the 50-meter freestyle swimming for men.
The researchers used the experimental method for suitability to the nature of the research, which was conducted on swimmers Faculty of Physical Education and selected sample of research and of the 14 swimmers were divided randomly draw way by (7) players for each group. Homogeneity was conducted on a sample of the research in variables (height, age, weight) as well as aparity between the two groups in physical variables. It appear by extracting value (t) the calculated lack of moral significant differences between the two groups in all the physical variables.
The researchers used the experimental design, which is called the "evaluate the control group random choice with pretest and posttest.
The procedures of the researcher included designing training program which was reviewed by experts and specialists, and then was the implementation of the training program, as experimental group carried out the proposed training program prepared by the researcher and private aspects of exercises muscle strength either the control group has carried out the traditional exercises that are given by the coach.
It took fulfillment training program (8) weeks, two average and three training units per week and waves of movement of pregnancy (3: 1) At each session, medium and after the completion of the implementation of the training program conducted tests posteriori by following the same procedures that have been adopted in the tests tribal tests of physical variables physical as well as imaging .The researcher reached the following conclusions:
1. the exercises of some aspects of muscle strength caused development in all the variables elevated some of them to the point of moral.
2. some of the exercises muscle strength which was carried out by the experimental group made a significant development in the achievement of the swimmers.
The researcher recommended the following:
1. The possibility of using the aspects of muscle strength exercises to be effective in the development of the strengths of swimmers.
2. The possibility of using exercises power specialized with speed or exercises force to develop the maximum speed and speed end urance of the swimmers .