Print ISSN: 1993-9345

Online ISSN: 2664-2514

Author : Hussein Mohammed, Ali


Constructing an optimism scale for the students of physical education college in the University of Mosul and it is relation with academic achievement

Ali Hussein Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2010, Volume 16, Issue 53, Pages 168-185
DOI: 10.33899/rajsport.2010.6091

ABSTRACT
Aims of study:
Constructing an optimism scale for the students of physical education college in the University of Mosul.
Evaluating the level of optimism of the students of physical education college in the University of Mosul.
Setting standard levels for the sample of study in the optimism scale.
Recognizing the relation between the level of optimism and the average of academic achievements of the students of physical education in the University of Mosul.
The researcher used the descriptive approach by survey and correlation style. The society of study included (773) students from the college of physical education in University of Mosul (2008-2009). The essential sample of study included (300) students chosen randomly from the society of study. The sample of study was divided into two divisions: sample of structure which included (180) students, i.e., (60%), chosen randomly from the essential sample of study, and sample of application which included (120) students, i.e., (40%), chosen randomly from the essential sample of study. The instrument of study included the scale of optimism that the research Constructed by taking scientific measures and steps in Constructed the scales. The steps and measures included validity of experts, statistical analysis of items by ways of (extreme groups and internal consistency). Scale stability has been verified by using the way of splet halves single and dual items manner, and average of academic achievement. Also, the researcher used the following statistical analysis: arithmetic mean, standard deviation, Carl Person Factor Equation, factor of simple correlation, T-test, Spearman- Brown Equation, assumption average of scale and percentage.
Conclusions:
- Efficiency of Constructed scale for evaluating the level of optimism for the students of college of physical education in the university of Mosul.
- Students of college of physical education in the university of Mosul, in general, have a level of optimism higher than assumption average of scale. This refers that they have good level of optimism which affect positively on their consistence and academic achievement, namely, they are enthusiastic for success and advancement in the study in the university as well as in their life (in general).
- standard levels have been set for the sample of study in the optimism scale.
- There positive significant correlations between the level of optimism and the average of academic achievement of the students of physical education college in the university of Mosul.