Print ISSN: 1993-9345

Online ISSN: 2664-2514

About Journal

Al-Rafidain Journal for Sports Sciences (RJSS) is an open-access, global and scientific Journal, Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY). This Journal has been published twice a year by the college of physical Education and Sports Sciences, Mosul University (Mosul, Iraq) since January 1995. The iThEnticate program is used to prevent impersonation and to ensure authenticity of the search. The double blind resident review system is also used to ensure the quality of the publication. Al-Rafidain Journal for Sports Sciences (RJSS) publishes original research,...
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Journal Information

Publisher: College of Physical Education and Sport Sciences

Email:  alrafedinsj@uomosul.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Hashim Ahmed Sulaiman Al-Isa

Print ISSN: 1993-9345

Online ISSN: 2664-2514

Volume 11 (2005)
Issue 39

Volume 24, Issue 75, Summer and Autumn 2021, Page 1-263


The Organizational Silence of the Educational Supervisors and Physical Education Specialist in Iraq

Ouday Gh. Al-Qawaz; Younes Eskander

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2021, Volume 24, Issue 75, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/rjss.2021.169796

The research aims to identify the dimensions of organizational silence and its factors for educational supervisors and supervisors with specialization (physical education specialization).
The researchers used the descriptive analytical method. The organizational silence questionnaire was approved for (Zainab Abdel Razzaq  Abboud, and Zafar Nasser Hussain, 2016) for the organizational silence applied to a sample of employees at the Presidency of the University of Babylon in Iraq, in obtaining the necessary data, and the research sample consisted of (111) educational supervisors and specialists from the followers For the Directorate of Educational Supervision in Iraq, frequency and percentage were used in extracting the levels of response to the measures as statistical methods. The researchers concluded that there is a low organizational silence among educational supervisors in the Directorate of Educational Supervision in Iraq , except  administrative and organizational reasons where silence is average.

Level Evaluation of Teaching Staff in Activating School Sports Activities from Sports Education Teachers Point of View in Mosul City

Thaker Al- Dulaimi

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2021, Volume 24, Issue 75, Pages 13-25
DOI: 10.33899/rjss.2021.169798

mean, standard deviation, percentage, the Seberman Brown equation, Gitman equation, and the Alpha Kronbach coefficient .
The researcher concluded several conclusions: The research aims to: -
To identify the level of teaching staff in activating school sport activities from the sport  education teachers point of view .
The descriptive approach was used in the survey method. The study sample (85) teachers from the teachers of sports education in the Directorate of Education of Ninawa and for obtaining the data a questionnaire was designed and applied after the availability of the scientific conditions in it of validity and stability. The data were treated statistically through the arithmetic
 1- The teaching staff have a positive level of collaboration in activating classroom activity .
2- The teaching staff have an effective level of cooperation in the Scouting sport activity by participating in the selection and selection of students and their role in encouraging staff students to practice Scouting.
3- The teaching bodies have shown a moderate interest in the internal and external athletic activity of secondary schools .
The researcher recommended several recommendations :
 1- urge the teaching staff to continue , follow up and to hang on their distinguished role in activating all school sports activities.
2- Finding a scientific and objective mechanism for the implementation of school sport activities, which would allow for greater attention and support by educational staff and school departments.
3-Making Similar study in primary and middle- schools
 

The Effect of Using the Fixed and Variable Exercise Scheduling on Developing Some Basic Volleyball Skills

Ahmed Hamed Al- Al-sweede

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2021, Volume 24, Issue 75, Pages 26-43
DOI: 10.33899/rjss.2021.169799

The research aims to:
1. Investigating the effect of using the fixed and variable training methods in developing some basic volleyball skills.
2. Comparing the effect of using the fixed and variable training methods in developing some basic volleyball skills in the post test.
The researcher used the experimental approach to its suitability and the nature of the research, the research sample consisted of (16) students, after students and they were expelled from  the performance of the tests, thus, the sample was divided into two experimental groups equal in number and by (8) students for each group. Homogeneity and parity were also performed in growth variables, some physical and motor variables, and some basic volleyball skills. The educational programs included (20) educational units distributed among the two research groups and by (10) educational units for each group, and the implementation of each educational program took five weeks, during which educational units were distributed at the rate of (2) educational units per week for each group, and the educational unit time was and for both methods (90) minutes. The data was statistically processed using the statistical program (SPSS).
The researcher concluded the following:
1. The variable exercise method used by the first experimental group had a positive effect in developing all the basic skills of volleyball (under discussion).
2. The static training method used by the second experimental group had a positive effect in developing the basic skills of volleyball (sending, receiving, blocking wall) and did not develop the skills (passing and crushing).
3. The variable exercise method used by the first experimental group outperformed the static exercise method that the second experimental group used to develop all basic volleyball skills (under consideration).

Obstacles Facing the Training of Youth Football Players in Iraqi Clubs

Dlovan Asad Nabe; Miqdad Mahdi; Ahmed M. Hame

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2021, Volume 24, Issue 75, Pages 44-60
DOI: 10.33899/rjss.2021.169800

The research aim was to identify the obstacles that youth basketball players face to practise in Iraq's clubs, and the significant of the differences in the obstacles that face their training according to variables: age, club, and training age. The researchers used the comparative descriptive approach, the research population consisted of (84) players who practise basketball in Iraq’s clubs, they are classified as Elite class and distributed among (7) clubs in Iraq. The research sample consisted of (72) players, distributed among (6) of these clubs that qualified for the Final rounds of Youth Basketball League. The researchers relied on using a ready-made questionnaire prepared by (Mahmoud Al-Haliq Al-Khasawneh, 2005), after modifying it and verifying its sincerity and reliability. The data was statistically processed using the mean, standard deviation and mono-variance analysis. The results show that there are many obstacles facing youth basketball training in sports clubs and in different axes, such as that technical, psychological, social, capabilities and requirements, and relationships with the coach. It been found that there are no significant differences in the obstacles due to the variables: age, club, and training age. In light of the results we presented a number of Recommendations and Suggestions.
 

A Comparative Study of Some Characteristics and Motor Abilities for the Primary School Pupils Aged (9-12) Years in both Rural and City Environments

salam jaber Almusaed

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2021, Volume 24, Issue 75, Pages 61-78
DOI: 10.33899/rjss.2021.169801

 
        The research aims know some of the motor abilities of  the primary school students (9-12) years in two different environments ( city , village ) for both sexes ( boys , girls ) and to compare between the reflect of the environments on the characteristics and abilities  in the way that it gives the teacher a sufficient information about  the deficiency in motor performance and how to promote the level through the annual and the daily plan for the lesson of the Physical Education  . The sample of the study consisted of (200) students in the primary stage   of (9-12) years from both sexes and they are chosen randomly from  a different schools and different environment (city and village) .A test of physical attributes is done to get the information of the level  in it and the researcher used  the descriptive method by testing the motor abilities for the sample members.The data were collected with the statistical bag (Spss) for the extraction of the arithmetic mean, standard deviation,  and (t-test ) valuables . The results showed several differences in the level of motor mobility between the two  sexes on one hand, and between the environment ( city , country ) on the other hand . The researcher recommended that physical tests must be conducted in the beginning of each school year to help  the physical education teacher to develop the lesson plan with positively affects in the pupils' motor abilities and qualities .
 

The Effect of Using Learning Centers Strategy on Learning Some of Soccer Basic Skills

Amanj Mahmood Mohammed; Fedaa Al-Khayat

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2021, Volume 24, Issue 75, Pages 79-97
DOI: 10.33899/rjss.2021.169802

   The research aimed to determine the effect of the learning centres strategy and common strategy in learning some of soccer basic skills and to identify the differences between learning centres strategy and common strategy of the post-test in some of soccer basic skills. The researchers assumed that there is an effect of learning centres strategy and common strategy in learning some of soccer basic skills and statistically significant differences between learning centres strategy and common strategy. Research utilized experimental approach, the research population consist of (144)  first year students, in the Institutes of Physical Education in Erbil for the academic year (2019-2020) by intentional method, the research sample was selected randomly by lottery operator as (24) students divided into two divisions,  (A) experimental group (Implementation of learning centres strategy), (D) control group (Implementation of common strategy). After conducting homogeneity and equivalence, the education program was applied. However, the main experiment started on 31/10/2019 and end 23/01/2020 (12) weeks with 12 educational units for each group, and the time for the unit was (40) minutes. The post-test performed under the same conditions of the pre-test and processing the data statistically using the statistical bag (SPSS). The researchers concluded that the educational program, according to the learning centres strategy has a positive effect on learning soccer basic skills, and positive effect of common strategy in two skills (dribbling and controlling). Furthermore, superiority of learning centres strategy in compared to the common strategy in skills (short passed, middle passes, controls, shots).
 

Logical Reasoning and its Effect on Achievement of the Paragliders in Iraq

Durgham Alnoaimy; Saba Fathi

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2021, Volume 24, Issue 75, Pages 98-114
DOI: 10.33899/rjss.2021.169804

The research aimed to identify the relationship between the logical reasoning and the level of its impact on the achievement of the Paragliders. The descriptive methodology was used for its suitability to the objectives of the research.
The research society is represented by 90 paragliders in Iraq qualified to participate in official tournaments held by the Iraqi Aero Federation. The 45 paragliders of the research sample were intentionally selected from the original research society with a percentage of 50% and whom participated in the Republic Championship.
The analysis content, personal interview, questionnaire and (VTS) tests were used to measure the logical reasoning as means of collecting data. The data were processed using the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, Pearson correlation coefficient, adjusted correlation coefficient, determination coefficient, effect size, and skewness coefficient using the SPSS statistical package within the Vienna system.
Among the most important conclusions that were reached are:
- Increasing the level of mental formations and their reasoning usually leads to an increase in the level of achievement of paragliders
- The level of performance of the achievement requires a mental ability that is aware of the environment surrounding the paragliders.
- The achievement of a good level of performance is greatly influenced by the level of logical reasoning conclusions.
 

The Effect of the Rebounding Exercises by Using Sandy and Aqueous Sphere on a Number of Physical Variables for Soccer Players

Othman adnan ALBAYATI; Essam Al-Maadhedy

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2021, Volume 24, Issue 75, Pages 115-128
DOI: 10.33899/rjss.2021.169805

The research aims to uncover the following:
- The effect of rebound exercises using the sand sphere on a number of physical variables for the football players.
- The effect of rebound exercises using the water sphere on a number of physical variables for football players.
- The significance of the statistical differences in the sand and water media between the two experimental research groups in the post tests
   The researcher used the experimental method for its suitability with the nature of the research. The experiment was carried out on a sample of the (24) players of the AL-Muthanna Sports Forum of Football, who were between (17- 19) years old, and they were chosen deliberately and divided randomly in to two groups(8) players for each group.
 A group, and the researchers concluded the following:
The creation of the training curriculum that used the rebound exercises and that was implemented by the two experimental groups,  has a positive effect on the development of all physical characteristics of football under consideration.
The first experimental group (the water sphere), which used rebound exercises, outperformed the second experimental group (the sandy sphere), which used the same rebound exercises in physical characteristics (agility, velocity elongation).
The first experimental group (the water medium), which used rebound exercises, outperformed the second experimental group (the sandy sphere), which used the same rebound exercises in physical characteristics (transitional velocity, explosive strength of the leg muscles, the characteristic strength of velocity for the muscles of the legs, and elongation of strength for the two legs), but they did not reach  the moral level .
 

Response of a Number of Gas Exchange Variables to Aerobic Physical Exertion of Varying Intensity Children Aged (10-12) Years

Omar Al-Naqeeb; Ahmed A.Algany Taha

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2021, Volume 24, Issue 75, Pages 129-149
DOI: 10.33899/rjss.2021.169806

 
Identify the differences in the variables (relative oxygen consumption volume (V̇O2), relative carbon dioxide volume (V̇CO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and metabolic equivalent (METs)) when moving from rest to physical aerobic exertion of increasing intensity in children aged ( 10-12) years old, and The researchers hypothesized statistically significant differences in the variables (relative oxygen consumption volume (V̇O2), relative volume of carbon dioxide (V )CO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), metabolic equivalent (METs)) when moving from rest to aerobic physical exertion of gradient intensity In children aged (10-12) years.
   The two researchers used the descriptive approach in a comparative style for its suitability and the nature of the study, as for the research sample, it consisted of (10) children of (10-12) years of age from primary school students in the (Al-Jawadin) primary school for the academic year (2019-2020) from Diwaniyah governorate, The final experiment was conducted under a condition of moderate ambient temperature (22°C ± 1) and humidity ranging (20-30%) on the research sample in complete rest and during physical exertion gradient using the Bruce protocol to reach the maximum oxygen consumption (air voltage with gradient intensity) in Physiology Lab at the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences / University of Al-Qadisiyah, and to process the data, the researcher used the following statistical methods to arrive at the results (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, body mass index, body surface area, and variance analysis using repeated measurements).
The researchers reached the following conclusions:

The escalating intensity of aerobic physical exertion would cause a noticeable increase in the transition from rest to the phase of air voltage, and from the air stress phase to the anaerobic threshold phase, and from the anaerobic threshold phase to the maximum oxygen consumption phase in the relative oxygen volume variable
The escalating intensity of aerobic physical exertion would cause a noticeable increase in the transition from rest to the phase of air voltage, and from the air stress phase to the anaerobic threshold phase, and from the anaerobic threshold stage to the maximum oxygen consumption stage in the proportional carbon dioxide volume variable
The escalating intensity of aerobic physical exertion would cause a noticeable increase in the transition from rest to the phase of air tension, and from the air stress phase to the anaerobic threshold stage, and from the anaerobic threshold stage to the maximum oxygen consumption stage in the variable respiratory exchange rate.
The escalating intensity of aerobic physical exertion would cause a noticeable increase in the transition from rest to the phase of air voltage, and from the air stress stage to the anaerobic threshold stage, and from the anaerobic threshold stage to the maximum oxygen consumption stage in the metabolic equivalent.

 

The Effect of an Educational Curriculum Using the Hanging Ball Device in Learning the Skills of the Smash Serve and the Smash Hit in Volleyball

diman faraj karim sharif

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2021, Volume 24, Issue 75, Pages 150-164
DOI: 10.33899/rjss.2021.169807

The aim of the research:
The educational curriculum has been prepared by using a ball hanging device, the research under, covers the impact of using that device during (serves and spike) skills in Volleyball and compares it with the coach’s program. The researcher showed the significant difference between pre-test and post-test experiments for the educational curriculum. The researcher dissects the similar study that is relative to the new study like the concept of training skill learning. The researcher has used the experimental approach for its relevance to the nature of research. While using the two-group experimental design, one of them is experimental group and the other is control group. the program has been applied on a young volleyball team (Hawler sport club) (2017-2018). The subjects consist of 20 players divided by two groups (experimental and control) randomly each group consists of 10 players. After these steps the researcher was able to find Homogeneity and equivalence in the research subjects.
In addition to using the tools and training equipment with research devices while working on the research; several tests took place, some concerning physical ability and some concerning motion. Then the researcher applied the main program for a duration of 6 weeks that consisted of three educational units per week. Each educational unit took a period of 90 minutes. Then the concluding experiment took place. In the end with the help of these experiments the researcher came up with these results.
The researcher concluded the following:
- The effect of the teaching program with the usage of the ball hanging device to learn skills such as (serve and spike) are positive for beginner players in Volleyball.
- The results of the experimental group who carried out the teaching program by using the ball hanging device, came out superior over the control group in both (serve and spike) skills.
-The researcher’s best recommendation and advice is while different branches of Physical education applying the educational curriculum they should consider using educational materials. Also, execute researches such as this one in, for different ages, and for both genders.
 

Building a Battery Test of Compatibility Capabilities for Football Players

Ethar Abdel Karim Ghazal; Faleh Taha

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2021, Volume 24, Issue 75, Pages 165-187
DOI: 10.33899/rjss.2021.169803

The objective of the research was to build a battery for testing the compatibility abilities of football players for the ages of 13-15 years. The descriptive method was used in the survey and correlation method. The sample consisted of (104) players from the Mosul Sports Academy. They were chosen in a deliberate manner. To determine the components of the compatibility capabilities and their tests, which reached to 22 tests. The tests were performed and the results of the analysis were reached. The following conclusions were reached: The results of the analysis were conducted on (22) measuring tests 7 factors reached 7 factors were all accepted In the light of the conditions laid down for its acceptance it has been interpreted and called first factor harmonic power of the body second factor steering the spatial and temporal third factor ability of the diverse  fourth factor precision kinetic ability of the ability to deal with different  Renderings Factor 5th ability to make the appropriate voltage factor 6th and  change the direction the ability of balance and agility factor 7th rhythmic ability.
 

The Basic Sciences Are the Priority in Preparing and Qualifying the Sports Coach: An Analytical Study

Majid Saeed Albu-Safi; Abdullah Said Al-Qaidi

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2021, Volume 24, Issue 75, Pages 188-200
DOI: 10.33899/rjss.2021.169808

This study aimed to investigate the basic sciences in preparing and qualifying sports coaches from the viewpoint of the various sports coaches in the Sultanate of Oman, and investigating the basic sciences in preparing and qualifying a sports coach in the sports training departments and the sports science departments in both the Arab Republic of Egypt and the United Kingdom. This study also aimed to investigate the issues that contribute to preparing sports coaches and adapting the training environment. The study relied on the descriptive and analytical method by using (interview and content analysis). The study sample reached (46) trainers a sports coaches, in addition, (6) departments for sports training in the universities of the Arab Republic of Egypt and (6) departments for sports science in the universities of the United Kingdom. The study concluded that the basic sciences in preparing sports coaches from the coaches' viewpoint are confined to the foundations of fitness training and the foundations for training sports for all. While the basic sciences with priority were confined to the sports training departments and the sport sciences departments in the Arab Republic of Egypt and the United Kingdom combined in: the science of sports training, measurement and assessment in sports training, physiology and science of sports, biology. The most important issues of preparing a sports coaches was intensifying rehabilitation courses in sports science. The study recommended the necessity of creating unified standards for building sports training programs in departments and colleges of physical education.
 

The Obstacles of Managing the e-Learning at the Colleges and Institutes of Physical Education in Erbil Governorate from the Point of View of its Teaching Staff

Abdul Hakeem Rasool; OZER SAHDI ISMAHIL

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2021, Volume 24, Issue 75, Pages 201-213
DOI: 10.33899/rjss.2021.169827

The aim of the research is to build a scale of obstacles of managing the e-Learning at the colleges and institutes of physical education in Erbil governorate from the point of view of its teaching staff. Also it aims to identify the level of obstacles of managing the e-Learning at the colleges and institutes of physical education in Erbil governorate from the point of view of its teaching staff. The descriptive approach and the survey method were used for its relevance and the nature of the current research. The research community included (105) teachers representing (8) colleges, and the institute of physical education in Erbil governorate as well. To implement the reality of (30) teachers, the researchers used (10) teachers to conduct the exploratory experiment on them, and neglected (5) others due to the lack of scientific condition in them.  The data were analyzed statistically by using SPSS program, which included the mean, standard deviation, percentage, Pearson correlation coefficient, Cronbach's alpha. The researchers concluded several conclusions, the most important of which are: the validity of the scale of obstacles of managing the e-Learning at the colleges and institutes of physical education in Erbil governorate, which was set by the researchers on both male and female teachers. The high level is an indication of the difficulties faced by teaching staff in delivering the study material to students through e-learning..                                                                                      
 

The Effect of Two Methods of Ballistic Resistance Training on Some Aspects of the Strength of the Lower Body in the Long Jump of the Specialized School Athletes

maan abdulkareem jasim; Azad Shams Al-Deen

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2021, Volume 24, Issue 75, Pages 214-227
DOI: 10.33899/rjss.2021.169821

The importance of the current research lies in the comparison between two training methods of ballistic resistance for the school athletes specialized in the long jump. The first method used medical balls with different weights, while the second method used ballistic tapes with different resistances on the basis of the original tape length and its percentage of stretch. The aim of the research is to reveal the effects of these two methods in developing specific aspects of the muscular strength of the two men. The research sample was intentionally selected from the Specialized School athletes for gifted and strong saliva in the long jump Nineveh Branch, which numbered 10 athletes, and was divided randomly into two experimental groups with (5) athletes for each group. The homogeneity was conducted for all the sample members in (age, height, body mass weight, and training age) and the probability values ​​appeared for them respectively (0.524), (0.947), (0.373), (0.673) which are not significant, and then the equivalence of the two research groups was made. In my tests (the explosive force, and the force distinguished by the velocity of the two men), their values ​​appeared respectively (0.797) and (0.660), which are not significant, and this indicates that the sample is homogeneous and the two groups are equivalent. The ballistic resistance curriculum was initially implemented as part of the main section of the trainer curriculum for a period of 9 weeks. The sample conducted tests in the two measurements before and after (the test of the wide jump from stability to the farthest distance), (and the test of the vertical jump continuously for 10 seconds).
       The results of the research showed significant differences in favor of the ballistic tapes, with a marked improvement in the two variables, explosive force and force, characterized by velocity.
The research concluded that the ballistic resistance method using ballistic tapes is distinguished from the ballistic resistance method using medical balls.
The research focused on his recommendations on long jump coaches using ballistic resistance-style foot exercises with tape at the end of the special preparation period and integrating them with the coach's training curriculum.
 

Measuring the Level of Dimensions of the State of Competition Anxiety ( the State of Cognitive and Physical Anxiety and Self-Confidence ) of the Players of Some Clubs in Nineveh

Ahmed Salem Ahmed; Nashaat Ibrahim

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2021, Volume 24, Issue 75, Pages 228-240
DOI: 10.33899/rjss.2021.169822

 
The aim of the research is to:
-  Measuring the differences in the dimensions of the competition anxiety stat scale, the state of cognitive and physical anxiety and self-confidence for the research sample in advanced football.
The researchers found that :
-  that the level of dimensions in the case of competition anxiety is a state of cognitive and physical anxiety and self-confidence among the players of the Fatwa Club, and it was better than that of the players of Al-Baladiya and Al-Waves Club.
The researchers recommended that  :
- Paying attention to the training units that grow and develop in the level of dimensions of the state of competition anxiety, the state of cognitive and physical anxiety and self-confidence of the players of the municipality club and sports waves in football .
 

Addressing the Effect of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction and Mindfulness Based Approaches in Sport Injury: A Systematic Review

Warhel Mohammed; Somruthai Poomsalood; Nykola S hroll-Lee

Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences, 2021, Volume 24, Issue 75, Pages 241-263
DOI: 10.33899/rjss.2021.169826

The aim of this review was to determine the effect of mindfulness on the psychological demands of injured athletes following formal and informal mindfulness practice across seven major studies that were graded and summarized. As a result, this review will provide a comprehensive examination of MBSR's theoretical and practical application in the sport rehabilitation process. 
The scientific search was conducted via the Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL, to find research that had been published between (2011-2020). Using a combination of these groups of keywords, a manual search has also been supplemented. The first and second researcher extracted relevant data from the studies. As for the information on study design, study population, stress reduction measurement, duration of intervention, and results were extracted in a standardized form. 
The initial search yielded 240 articles. A total of nine studies were deemed applicable following application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Most studies in this review used quantitative methods and two studies used mixed approaches. One study used both quantitative and qualitative methods, whilst another study used both experimental and quantitative methods. They assessed both pain tolerance and the perception of pain in injured athletes during a Cold Pressor Test. The rest of the studies were descriptive and most of the studies applied MBSR techniques or other mindfulness-based approaches with injured athletes. One study used a cross-sectional study design. There was a mix of methodology designs that had been used by the researchers. 
This systematic review clarified a promising outcome to adapt MBSR into sport injury rehabilitation. This is through formal and informal mindfulness practice by practitioners. MBSR is not only used with clinical populations, but also with non-clinical populations. Thus, the integration of MBSR and MBA into sport therapy would create a valuable understanding regarding mindfulness practice in sport, in both theoretical and practical knowledge.
 

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